LEMONS - Lemons belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from Asia.
In addition to lemons, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes and easypeelers.
Lemons are berry fruit consisting of three layers:
- the outer yellow peel (exocarp, flavedo), the glands of which exude the essential oil of lemon, which produces the typical citrus odor
- the whitish mesocarp (albedo)
- the endocarp consisting of 8 - 10 segments filled with juice sacs (vesicles)
Lemons are usually of an elongated shape with a peel of variable thickness and pointed tip. The juicy pulp of a medium-sized lemon contains 30 - 35 g of lemon juice, which has a high vitamin C content (60 - 100 mg per 100 g of fruit). Lemons are divided into winter and summer fruits.
The degree of ripeness of citrus fruit is determined on the basis of three criteria:
- by the ripeness index: this is determined by the Brix value, which is a measure of the sugar/acid ratio of the fruit. According to citrus fruit with a Brix value of between 10 and 16 have good flavor.
- by cutting at purchase: freshness is determined by cutting the fruit in half from the stem-end to the opposite end. If the fruit is withered at the stem-end, it must not be shipped.
- by peel color: the color of the peel is not necessarily a reliable indicator of ripeness, but its surface gloss is. Glossy lemons are ripe, even if they are still green or have green spots.
Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
- Commodity Name:
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh)