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Description: CHESTNUTS - Chestnuts suffering from "stanca" (tiredness), causing deterioration in the appearance of the nuts can be refreshed in a cold-water bath. This condition of "stanca" should not affect the value of the goods, as after being refreshed in cold water they should recover their original worth. Under this treatment defective nuts float to the surface. Chestnuts respire, and during the respiration process moisture and gases are given off which, if not controlled by circulation of air around and through the cases and barrels, will cause heat and mold to develop. Chestnuts under refrigeration will, if properly stowed and dunnaged, and proper temperatures maintained, remain in sound condition for periods as long as one year. Prior to shipment Italian chestnuts are generally given hot-water baths, the purpose of which is to destroy insect infestation, and subsequently given a few minutes immersion in cold water, after which the nuts are placed on the floors or platforms of the ware houses and massed, heaped and shoveled from time to time until they are dry. They are then graded, polished and packed. If the pre-shipment baths and other treatments given are not proper and adequate, chestnuts will develop mold within a few days. There is a risk of chestnuts deteriorating after discharge if unloaded from refrigerated spaces into the hot sun. Once the process of deterioration has begun, it is difficult if not impossible to arrest it. Chestnuts are liable to infestation, and should be sterilized before shipment. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Sweet chestnuts are edible nuts, which grow on trees of the genus Castanea in the beech family (Fagaceae). Chestnuts are native to the Black Sea area. They have a spiky, external husk (cupule), which spontaneously breaks open when ripe to reveal the actual fruit. The outer husk may contain 1 - 3 fruits. The fruit consists of the light colored nut kernel, a thin skin and a red-brown to brown pericarp. The base of the nut has a light colored spot, also known as the "navel". Chestnuts are of a round to oval shape. Their flavor may be described as nutty. Boiling or roasting imparts a still stronger aroma to chestnuts. Cooking also makes it easy to remove the skin and shell from the nut kernel. The nut kernel predominantly consists of starch, protein, minerals and chestnut oil. For a nut, its vitamin C content is relatively high. The oil content of chestnuts is 1 - 2% (chestnut oil). There are a very large number of different varieties of chestnuts, just one of which is the "keeping" chestnut, which remains on the tree longer than normal chestnuts and must be picked by hand.
Index: 520
Commodity Name: NUTS AND KERNELS

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