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Description: Wool is generally used for the pile of carpets, but goat hair, mohair, cotton and man-made fibers can be present. The carpet back is usually woven from cotton and jute, but linen, hemp, rayon and paper yarns can be used. DAMAGE BY WATER AND DAMPNESS - Bleeding of pile yarns can be caused by contact with alkaline solutions. Drastic alteration in shade can occur if the carpet is in contact with salt or contaminated with urine. Staining can occur as a result of color migration from the various components under wet conditions. Shading, which is particularly noticeable in plain carpets, is due to pressure on the pile yarns altering the position of some of the tufts and thus causing an apparent change of shade. Shading is greatly accelerated by pressure under wet or damp conditions; this is a purely optical effect, fundamental to pile fabrics. The pile can also be damaged by insects. Mildew and/or bacterial damage can occur if the carpet is allowed to stand in a damp condition. Immersion in seawater can be dangerous, as the carpet-back will not dry out properly until all the salt has been removed. The backing yarns can also be damaged by insects, and mineral acids. Soiling of the carpet due to inadequate packing generally occurs at the edges. Staining can be caused by excessive heat melting the tar present in tar-paper wrappers. Damage arising from wetting or dampness may be more extensive than would appear from a visual inspection of an affected package. When damage is found the carpets affected should be opened out and dried as soon as possible. If the carpets remain in a damp condition for a prolonged period rot will set in and the goods may become permanently damaged. Carpets damaged by seawater should be well washed in cold water before drying, otherwise they will not become thoroughly dry, and later the jute or other cellulosic backing yarns are liable to rot. Those damaged by dirty water should be cleansed before drying. Prompt action will minimize damage, and the services of dyers and cleaners or launderers may be of assistance. Carpets affected by tar stain or contaminated with oil or grease often may be restored by dry cleaning. It is possible to mend small holes or tears in patterned carpets, but repairs on plain carpets are not always satisfactory. Carpets and runners are textile floor coverings which are mainly transported in rolls or bales. Carpets may be produced by knotting, weaving, knitting, stitching/stitch-bonding, electrostatic flocking and adhesive bonding. Wool and synthetic fibers (polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, polyester) are used for soft hair carpets, with goat hair, mohair and cotton also being used. The carpet backing may consist of woven cotton or jute or be made from polyamide. In tufted carpets, the foundation of the carpets consists of jute or polypropylene and the actual backing consists of foam rubber or PVC, or alternatively a second type of foundation is used which may consist of jute or other fibers. A distinction is also drawn between: hand-knotted, machine-knotted hand-woven and machine-woven carpets Knotted carpets are hand or machine-knotted carpets. Hand knotted carpets from the Orient are known as oriental carpets or rugs. The pile is knotted in rows in the vertically tensioned warp. The best known types of hand-knots are the carpets Turkish and Persian knots. Oriental carpets are named after their place of origin, for example Afghan (Afghanistan), Bokhara, Baluchistan, Haris, Kirman, Shirvan, Tabriz and Smyrna. In addition to these knotted-pile carpets, there are also "kilims", or knitted, two-sided carpets, which are thinner and generally used as door curtains and bedspreads. Carpets are a valuable cargo.
Index: 158
Commodity Name: CARPETS

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