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Name Description
ABACA FIBER (Manila Hemp) (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ABALONE A type of shell fish. The shell is used in the manufacture of buttons. Shells are easily crushed. Odorous when badly prepared.
ACACIA GUM (Gum Arabic) (See Gums)
ACETANNIN (Acetyl Tannic Acid) In its sound state, this chemical has a grayish yellow color. On exposure to light it will gradually change this color until it becomes brown. If the change has reached an advanced state the chemical may be considered as valueless. Acetannin is only slightly soluble in water and therefore water damage is not likely to reduce its properties to a great extent.
ACETIC ANHYDRIDE A combustible liquid when heated above 130 degrees F; corrosive, giving out suffocating vapors irritating to the eyes; produces acetic acid when mixed with water. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACETONE Subject to a loss in weight through seepage from containers. An inflammable liquid; at very low temperature produces heavy vapors which, when mixed with air, become explosive. Miscible with water. Dissolves organic substances, fats, resins, etc. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACIDS ACETIC ACID - A combustible liquid when heated. Corrosive and detrimental to other cargo on account of odor. At low temperatures is likely to turn cloudy, but this does not result in any ill effects to the acid itself. Shipped in suitable drums and tanks. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACIDS ACETIC ACID (GLACIAL) - At low temperatures the acid will solidify, but this change in its physical condition has no ill effect. If the acid is frozen it may move freely in the container and may cause breakage with consequent leakage when the acid liquifies. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACIDS ASCORBIC ACID (IN CRYSTAL FORM) - Generally packed in fiber drums. If moisture is allowed to collect on the drum heads during transit the crystals may become discolored, and lose part of their potency due to oxidation.
ACIDS FATTY ACIDS - Subject to a natural loss in weight. If shipped to hot climates in metal drums a clearance of or 4 inches should be left between the surface of the arid and lid of the drum to allow for expansion. Pressure from the acid, combined with corrosive effect, may hole or burst the drums in very hot weather. Fatty acids should be packed in suitable drums allowing for contraction and expansion due to temperature change. Distilled fatty acids, when coming into contact with a metal such as iron, cause a corrosion which will affect the color. This is a process of oxidation which can be controlled both chemically and physically. Ships tanks carrying such commodities should be submitted to a special treatment, e.g. coated with insulating material. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACIDS PICRIC ACID - These yellow crystals are very poisonous and are explosive especially in contact with metals or metallic oxides. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACIDS STEARIC ACID - A byproduct of Stearin separated by steam and used in the manufacture of candles. Subject to a loss in weight.
ACIDS SULPHURIC ACID - An increase in temperature during transit will cause an expansion of volume of the acid and leakage is likely to occur if the containers have been filled to the top with no air space left to allow for this expansion. Sulphuric Acid is highly hygroscopic. Should be packed in suitable drums and tanks. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. This commodity evolves heat when in contact with water.
ACIDS TARTARIC ACID - Is particularly susceptible to damage by moisture in atmosphere, is likely to harden following storage in such conditions.
ACONITE ROOT (See Roots)
ACORN CUPS (See Valonea)
ACTIVATED CARBON Used for the purification of gases or clarification of liquids, water, oils. etc. Damage may render this commodity unfit for use with edible liquids but it may be fit for use in the clarification of non-edible oils, etc. The advice of an analytical chemist should be obtained as to alternative uses. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ACTIVATED CARBON Used for the purification of gases or clarification of liquids, water, oils. etc. Damage may render this commodity unfit for use with edible liquids but it may be fit for use in the clarification of non-edible oils, etc. The advice of an analytical chemist should be obtained as to alternative uses. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ADHESIVE TAPES (See Cellulose Tape)
ADHESIVE TAPES, etc. (See Cellulose Tape)
AFRICAN COPAL (See Anime)
AGAR-AGAR A substance which is prepared from various species of red algae which grows in Asiatic waters. It is a seagrass resembling gelatine and varies in color from white to light amber, which may fade due to prolonged storage. Used in the manufacture of paper and textiles; in blancmange powders; as a dressing for silk and cotton fabrics, and as a medium for culturing bacteria and various fungi. Although it resembles gelatine, unlike that commodity is not liable to putrofication. Will dissolve in contact with water and will deteriorate rapidly due to moisture, in the process of which it will change to yellow or pink color. Water damage renders the product useless for food purposes arid as a cultural media. Contamination by foreign matter will result in depreciation in value.
AJOWAN (See Seeds and Oilseeds)
ALABASTER White soft stone, easily broken. May give off moisture and lose weight.
ALBUMEN (Blood) A glutinous powder obtained from animal blood. Mainly used in the glue manufacturing and textile printing industries. Conditions of humidity may cause deterioration.
ALBUMEN (Egg) A product mainly from eggs, used in the color industry. May be shipped both moist and dry, and In the latter event is usually carried in a refrigerated space. Is not prime if excessive moisture is present or if it is reddish in parts, and has been adulterated, or if there is any boracic acid content.
ALFA (Halfa Esparto) Alfa, a variety of esparto grass used mainly in the manufacture of paper, is a long flat leaf which when dried coils itself in the shape of a cylindrical rod, traces of damage to alfa are revealed by carefully unrolling the leaf and presenting it flat. This commodity is liable to heat if heaped up in a badly ventilated humid place. Sound alfa has a characteristic yellow color. Wetting or prolonged stacking has the effect of turning the alfa black, in which case the material may become unsuitable to be treated at paper mills. This kind of damage, if the solidity of the fiber is not affected, has no marked influence upon its value in the textile industries. Highly inflammable if baled wet. Humidity will affect weight loss or gain. Esparto consists of the rush-like, smooth, tough, green stalks some 20 - 100 cm in length of various needlegrasses from the western Mediterranean area, such as esparto (Lygeum spartum) and halfa (Stipa tenacissima). It is also traded as esparto grass, Spanish grass, sparto grass and halfa or alfa grass.
ALFALFA (Hay) Lucerne Dried grass fodder shipped in bales more or less compressed. May absorb moisture, generate heat and become mildewed. Frequently cut and bundled when green or moist, which may be the cause of heating and deterioration. Must be kept dry and protected from odors. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ALFALFA MEAL Ground alfalfa hay. Affected by moisture and strong odors. May heat and ferment. Usually shipped in bags. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ALGAROBA (Carob Beans) (See Beans, Dried)
ALIZARIN A powder extracted from the madder root. Used in dyes. See also US CFR.
ALMOND OIL BITTER Changes into a crystalline mass on exposure to the air, hence the shipping containers should be tightly closed and completely filled.
ALMONDS (See Nuts and Kernels)
ALOES CAPE ALOES (CRUDE) - This is a product which is tapped from the leaf of a certain type of Aloe plant. The sap is of a light golden color and is boiled, during which approximately 40 percent of moisture is driven off. This sap then sets into a hard brittle substance and takes on a much darker color. In cold weather Cape Aloes (crude) set hard. In warmer weather the Aloes tend to become softer and one is able at times to press one thumb into the product. Persons not familiar with this product may when finding Aloes to be a little on the soft side, class this as damage. If the weather is very hot it is normal for the Aloes to became softer. If the Aloe, become wet, this also tends to soften the product.
ALOES FIBERS (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ALOES CAPS ALOES (PREPARED) is a gum, an exudate of the plant of the same name. It is prepared generally in a very crude manner in country districts, with the use of heat. The product is usually exported in the form of small cobbles or lumps. It could be damaged by water, but is not especially susceptible to water damage. Heat will, of course, cause solidification, and water might aid this. Should solidification occur, crushing should not be difficult. It should then be possible to carry out the normal process of purification, which consists either of boiling in water or the use of some spirit to soften and remove impurities. The generally rather crude method of extraction of the gum from the plant can adversely affect the product. It can be overheated or burnt, i.e. broken down chemically. Some of its blackness would thus represent useless carbon. The product in this condition would tend to solidify more readily than normally.
ALOES CURACAO ALOES - These come from the Caribbean area. Points of difference between these and Cape Aloes include: - The boiling of Curacao Aloes is not continued long enough, and in such cases the Aloes are soft and may be of a consistency approximately similar to putty. Softness is not therefore necessarily evidence of water damage. but may be due to faulty preparation.
ALUM A white crystalline compound made up of sulphate of potash, sulphate of alumina and water. Used for various purposes, including dyeing, tanning, printing, etc. Carries a large percentage of water of crystallization, part of which may be lost through rise in temperature and drop in humidity. The effect of this is a powder formation on the crystals, and occasionally a complete breakdown of the crystals to a fine powder. There is, however, no fundamental chemical change. May be subject to a natural loss in weight due to loss of moisture.
ALUMINIUM SULPHIDE Decomposes and forms a gray powder if exposed to moist air. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ALUMINUM Pure aluminium becomes affected by humidity and atmospheric moisture and the surfaces of the sheets and other aluminium manufactures will become dulled in consequence. This condition is not serious unless there has been heavy corrosion such as would arise by actual contact with water and the goods allowed to remain in a damp condition for some time. In the ordinary course of events the dullness can be removed by polishing. The high resistance of aluminium to corrosion is due to a natural film of aluminium oxide which is integral with the parent metal. This film begins to form immediately when cut metal is exposed to the air and slowly increases in thickness until after some days no further oxidation takes place. Prolonged exposure to an atmosphere causes slight corrosion resulting in a visible fun which is white to gray in color, but under normal atmospheric conditions this visible film is easily rubbed off, Leaving a permanent protective film behind. When sheets are stacked together inside cases or in stores, moisture. which may be condensed in considerable quantities, can penetrate by capillary action between the sheets and cause considerable corrosion. In industrial locations such moisture is usually contaminated by acid products in the atmosphere or by alkalis in the packing paper which will assist this corrosion. Even though the paper used by the supplier is free from sulphates or chlorides, the packing may still absorb moisture from the air, and this paper should therefore be removed as soon as possible. Corrosion arising out of condensation is rarely harmful to the metal itself and can usually be removed by rubbing with a hand cloth and whiting. In more severe cases steel wool or a steel wire brush is sometimes used, followed by pickling in a cleaning solution. Corrosion by moisture is accelerated by various alkaline compounds which may be present in cement mortar, plaster, etc., and therefore aluminium materials should not rest on unprotected concrete floors. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
AMANG ORE (See Ilmenite)
ANGORA HAIR (See Mohair). See also IMDG Code.
ANILINE DYES The fumes given off by these commodities are very penetrating and the oil leaves damaging stains on its contacts. See also IMDG Code.
ANIME (Animi: African Copal) A resin used in the manufacture of varnishes. Liable to heat and gives off moisture
ANISEED (See Seeds)
ANISEED TREE ESSENCE Usually packed in metal drums, this essence is very fluid.
ANNATTO The pulp enclosing the seeds of the arnotto tree, from which a coloring matter is extracted. Liable to severe deterioration through wetting. May be packed in jute bags and may suffer a natural loss in weight. See also SEEDS.
ANNATTO SEEDS (See Seeds)
APPLES (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
APRICOTS (Dried) (See Fruits, Dried)
ARABIC GUM (Acacia Gum) (See Gums)
ARGOL (Argil) An impure form of bitartrate of potash found as a crust in wine casks. It is used in the preparation of tartaric acid and cream of tartar, and sometimes for dyeing purposes. Argot which has been damaged by moisture may be found to have lost part of its tartaric acid content.
ARGON A non-inflammable used in the manufacture of electric bulbs. Shipped compressed. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ARNOTTO (See Annatto)
ASCORBIC ACID (See Acids)
ASHPHALTUM (Gilsonite) Subject to a loss in weight brought about by chafing, dusting and flaking.
ASPARAGUS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
ASPHALT A petroleum product obtained in natural condition from dried-up oil beds, or as a distillation byproduct. There is a considerable range in melting points, some very low, and this factor should be considered in relation to the type of packing to be used, especially when a shipment has to pass through the tropics. Liable to leakage from barrels or drums, in which event consideration expense may be incurred in discharge from vessel and any subsequent handling. See also FLUXPHALT. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
AVOCADO PEARS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
AWABI (another name for Abalone) See Abalone
BABASSU CAKE Contains about 5 percent oil, is liable to heat and if badly stowed may subject to spontaneous combustion. Absorbs moisture thereby having a tendency to increase in weight. Is liable to be damaged by absorption of odor from other sources. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BABASSU OIL Extracted from the seed of a Brazilian palm tree. Usually shipped in bulk, is an edible oil. Inflammable. Melting point 77 degrees F, solidifies at 65 degrees F, which will not harm the oil. Loss through evaporation is slight. See also BULK OILS AND FATS.
BACON Smoked bacon is subject to inherent vice. While the external condition of each cut may be found to be good, upon removing the wrappings, the bacon may be found to be covered with a spongy fungoid growth, to be soft, mushy, badly discolored, fetid, abounding with mites, and in an advanced state of putrofication. Such defects are aggravated by violent fluctuations of temperature thereby causing sweating, or by humid conditions of storage. Subject to a natural loss in weight.
BALATA (See Gums)
BALSA WOOD A wood lighter than cork from Central America and Ecuador. Easily damaged by crushing or wetting.
BAMBOO CANES There are dozens of varieties, but the principal point to observe are that the canes should be of natural yellow color and free of infestation by insects, which is likely to arise as a result of prolonged storage. Canes of a grayish color are considered unsatisfactory and should be withheld from export. See also RATTAN and MALACCA CANE.
BANANA POWDER A dry powder of desiccated bananas used as food and for the making of drinks, etc. Should be kept in a cool, dry place, protected from smells, which are readily absorbed.
BANANAS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
BARBASCO ROOT (Cube Root) (See Roots)
BARKS (Medicinal, etc.) - May be subject to a natural loss in weight due to loss of moisture content, or to chafing and consequent seepage from containers. The extent of any such loss will be dependent upon the condition of the bark at the time of shipment and the conditions and nature of the voyage and handling, storage and stowage. Loss may be enhanced by poor packing. If not properly dried before shipment, some barks may develop mold growth. Barks are also subject to infestation and are affected by humidity. If barks should become badly wetted during transit they may rot, but even if rot does not set in, part of the alkaloid content, due to excessive humidity, will be lost. Barks usually carry a guarantee as to their alkaloid content, but samples have been known to give two or three entirely different results. The effect of barks getting wet during transit varies according to the use to which they are going to be put.
BARKS BARK FOR QUININE EXTRACTS - Water damage, while reducing the value of the bark due to loss of alkaloid, does not render it unusable for quinine extracts. In the case of other varieties used in the distillery trade or for the manufacture of cinchona extract or for druggists' purposes, water damage may render the bark unsuitable.
BARKS MANGROVE BARK - The extract from mangrove bark is used to extensively in the tanning industry. Water damage affects the bark as the tannin content is decreased. Mangrove is grown in seawater swamps and would give a salt reaction to an analytical test. Bags may be strained due to natural sweat or the moisture content of the bark at the time of packing. If the bags are contaminated by complete or partial immersion they become strained dark red up to the bag ears, a phenomenon which could not be produced had the straining been due to natural moisture content of the bark.
BARKS CASSIA FISTULA - The dried bark of cassia, a product of the Far East, used as a substitute for cinnamon. There are about ten grades, the two most important being selected Kwangsi Rolls and selected Kwangsi broken. Rolls should have a good yellow-brown color with small percentage only of short lengths included. No dust, foreign matter or black shin should be present. The commodity is usually sold on landed weights, and local exporters mostly make some allowance to take care of short weight due to drying-up of cassia in transit.
BARLEY (See Grain)
BASIC SLAG A byproduct of the steel industry which, when finely ground, is used as a fertilizer. Has a high density and will set hard if damaged by wetting. Slag so damaged may or may not have a value, dependent upon the cost of drying, regrinding. It is usually packed in bags. Contact with acids gives rise to an offensive odor, but this can be removed by the drying of the slag, without loss of phosphate value unless the acid is toxic. See also FERTILIZERS, PHOSPHATES AND SUPERPHOSPHATES.
BASILS (See Hides)
BATHS (Cast-iron Enamelled Porcelain) Very often constructional defects are found in the enamel in the form of light cracks which are not necessarily proof of damage from external cause; can be due to defective firing. Sometimes nested in the crates with corrugated or mottled cardboard manufactured by the sulphite process between. If exposed to moisture, the sulphite is released and has a bleaching effect cannot be eradicated. The pattern disappears when the bath is wet and reappears as it dries. See also ENAMEL WARE.
BATTERIES (Dry) Dry batteries stored beyond the normal safe shelf-life period are liable to suffer from corrosion of the zinc containers due to the action thereon of the Salammoniac and other chemicals used. This corrosion can quite easily come through the outer cardboard covering of a radio or torch battery and damage anything with which it comes into contact. Alternatively, and also with age, the paste electrolyte may dry out almost completely. Either corrosion of the zincs or drying of the past electrolyte renders dry batteries useless. The principal enemies of dry batteries in storage are excessive heat or damp. A cool, dry store is essential. The discharge of a dry battery at a very high rate, such as would occur in accidental shorting, is liable to cause the paste electrolyte to liquefy. In larger type cells, the electrolyte might, under these conditions, ooze out from the container and cause damage by corrosion to anything with which it came into contact. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BATTERIES (Lead Acid) Such batteries are invariably shipped dry (i.e. without electrolyte in the cells) or the components may be shipped loose. Damage which may be suffered by cells shipped unassembled will either be mechanical or through entry of excessive moisture, fresh water or seawater, into the cells. Mechanical damage can be remedied by dismantling the battery and replacement of the affected parts. Damage through entry of water will ruin the plates and separators if the amounts of moisture are considerable. In slight cases, however, the effects of moisture can be minimized by the following treatment: See also IMDG Code & US CFR. Fresh-water contamination - The batteries should be put into service normally but the length of the first charge may have to be extended from the normal number of hours. At the end of the charge of electrolyte may be necessary if impurities are present. Sea-water contamination - Batteries should be put into service normally, but the length of first charge may have to be extended from the normal number of hours. At the end of the charge, the electrolyte should be changed and a further charge given. Chemical tests should be carried out and changes of electrolyte continued until impurity limits are satisfactory. The changing of electrolyte is most important. In the case of dry charged, partially dry charged, or short first charged batteries, entry of moisture would destroy the charge characteristics and it would be necessary to treat the batteries as standard long first charge types as above. Breakage of seals or restrictive devised fitted to dry charged batteries may result in loss of dry charged characteristics although not necessarily in permanent damage to the cells if they are given an adequate first charge. Battery plates shipped loose may be damages permanently if allowed to come into contact with most packaging material. Such damage may not become evident until after the cells have been in service for some time. If moisture is suspected the plates should be swilled in pure water and put into service at once. This treatment may only be partially effective. Microporous plastic (or similar) separators may be rendered useless if accidentally wetted. Wet treated wood separators will be damaged if the packing material is disturbed. Neither type of separator can be restored and should be destroyed. During transit the temperature should be kept moderate and the batteries or crates in which they are packed should be shielded from direct ray of the sun. Note: - In the event of moisture gaining access to the plates, the battery manufactures should be consulted at once if the amount of damage is to be kept to a minimum.
BATTERIES (Lead Acid) NICKEL ALKALINE BATTERIES - The main damage to which accumulators of the alkaline type are liable is corrosion, and this may fall into three broad classes: (See also IMDG Code & US CFR). (a)Superficial corrosion of the cell lids, connectors and vents due to exposure to salt-laden atmosphere. This can generally be cleaned away on site and if the cell tops are liberally greased and the battery is remounted in a dry atmosphere the battery performance should not suffer. (b)Inter-cell corrosion towards the bottom of the cells due to accumulation of wet matter between the cells, so causing an electrical leakage path leading to electrolytic corrosion. If the cell containers have not been perforated by corrosion they should be thoroughly cleaned, repainted with alkali-proof paint and re-installed. Any cells with perforated containers should be returned to the makers for new containers to be fitted. (c)Corrosion of the cell containers due to actual immersion in salt water. If the immersion is partial, due to installation in an unsuitable position, the cells should be treated as in (b) and remounted in a more suitable place. If the immersion of the battery has been complete owing the accident it must be returned to the makers for examination and report.
BEAN CAKE (Cattle Food) Residue of beans after hydraulic pressing for oil. Taints, and is easily tainted by, other cargoes. Has a strong tendency to heating in stowage and a slight latent tendency to spontaneous combustion. The commodity should be kept well away from engine and stokehold bulkheads. It quickly turns moldy, from damp dunnage, hold, ceiling, etc. May be shipped in bulk or in bags. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BEANS (Dried) All dried beans are liable to heat, sweat and ferment if shipped in a damp condition. A musty condition when delivered may be indicative of the beans having been shipped with excessive moisture content. Such condition should not be confused with that arising from improper packing, stowage, storage, etc. Contact with sea or fresh water will also cause moldiness. Beans are liable to infestation by weevil, and if exposed to heat, may breed vermin. White spots or deposits on outside of the beans do not necessarily indicate damage due to external causes. Dried beans develop weevils internally, which eat their way out from the center of the bean and in doing so cause white spots to develop. Subject to a natural loss in weight.
BEANS (ex Angola) - Regulations permit a certain tolerance in impurities, other colors, and bored or broken beans, according to type. Beans are affected by conditions of humidity, which may cause the produce to become rotten, which is noted by a swelling of the sacks and consequent fetid smell.
BEANS (ex N. Africa) - During summer time, are generally subject to an increase of weight when kept for any length of time in the vicinity of the sea, due to absorption of moisture from the atmosphere.
BEANS (ex Ethiopia) - Usually bagged in jute bags, but bags are sometimes badly sewn at the mouth.
BEANS CAROB BEANS (Locust Beans) - If well dried before shipment they generally withstand climatic changes. If damaged through wetting, they may be unfit for the extraction of juice. Seriously damaged Carob beans can be utilized in the manufacture of alcohol and also as pig food. Carob beans of an old crop are liable to develop weevil.
BEANS HARICOT BEANS - If stored for a long period, invariably become contaminated by weevil.
BEANS HORSE BEANS - If stored for a long period, invariably become contaminated by weevil.
BEANS KASHRANGEIG (Lubia Afin) - Used mainly in the East for human consumption and also as cattle food. This bean is short lived and scarcely exists six months after harvesting without weevil attack being apparent.
BEANS RED KIDNEY BEANS - These may be subject to natural loss in weight if shipped soon after harvesting. If wetted will quickly absorb moisture, increase in weight and rot.
BEANS SOYA BEANS - An oil-bearing bean grown chiefly in Manchuria and China. Although not liable to spontaneous combustion, this commodity heats sufficiently to blacken the bags in which it is shipped. If the beans are shipped in a damp condition they may heat, sweat and ferment. The normal moisture content is high, and occasionally this may be evidenced by a musty smell and slightly soggy beans. Beans are the seeds of the annual bean plants belonging to the legume family (Leguminosae) and are transported in dry form.
BEAVER BOARDS Thin boards made of pressed fibers mixed with glue, and used in making partitions, ceilings, etc. Usually shipped in bundles held by laths or metal straps and liable to damage by slings, uneven dunnage pressure.
BEEF (Corned, Stewed, etc.) (See Canned Goods)
BEER Beer is very much affected by variations and extremes of temperature and leakage or undue heat may affect the whole of the contents of a barrel. Beer is a fermented, frothy (effervescent) alcoholic beverage made from malt, hops, yeast and water. The brewing process is divided into the following three stages: - malting - wort boiling - fermentation Germany produces a very wide range of beers, which are classified according to styles and types. Original wort content is the basis for classification into the four different German beer styles: - Einfachbiere have a low original wort content (approx. 2 - 5.5%). Their low alcohol content (approx. 2. vol.%) and low extract content mean that they have only a poorly developed flavor. - Schankbiere have a higher original wort content (approx. 7 - 8%) and a somewhat higher alcohol content (approx. 3 vol.%). - Vollbiere have the second highest content of original wort (approx. 11 - 14%), alcohol (4 -5 vol.%) and extracts. These account for a good 90% of the total beer market. - Starkbiere have the highest alcohol content (approx. 6 - 9 vol.%) and are brewed only at certain times (e.g. Maibock). Their original wort content is at least 16%. The beer types are classified as bottom-fermented and top-fermented, depending on the strain of yeast used:
BEER Bottom-fermented beer types - are obtained by fermenting with "bottom" strains. The yeast is deposited as a layer at the bottom of the fermentation vessel, so allowing the beer to ferment only slowly. German purity regulations allow bottom-fermented beer to be made solely from barley malt, hops, yeast and water. The following are examples of bottom-fermented types: - Dortmunder" beers: light color, less hopped and more full-bodied than the Pilsener type - Pilsener" beers: light color, strongly hopped, harmoniously balanced, strongly bitter, highly fermented, long-lasting head - "Munchner" beers: dark brown color, weak hop-bitterness, malty flavor
BEER Top-fermented beer types - are fermented rapidly by top strains which rise to the surface. Top-fermented beer may have other types of malt and sugar added to it, in addition to the basic ingredients. Top-fermented types include "Berliner WeiBe", "Kolsch", "Dusseldorfer Alt", "Weizenbier".
BEESWAX Shipped in hard blocks. Good quality beeswax has a color between light yellow and light brown. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to chafing and seepage.
BENJAMIN GUM (Benzoin) (See Gums)
BENTONITE May under certain conditions of storage or stowage be subject to slight variations in weight through drying out or absorption of moisture.EinfachbiereU have a low original wort content (approx. 2 - 5.5%). Their low alcohol content (approx. 2. vol.%) and low extract content mean that they have only a poorly developed flavor.
BENZINE When shipped in bulk is subject to a loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BENZOIN (Gum Benjamin) (See Gums)
BILBERRY JUICE When shipped in barrels is subject to a loss in weight due to absorption of some liquid by the containers. See also FRUIT JUICES.
BINDERS (See Loose-leaf Binders)
BIRD LIME This greenish, viscid, glutinous substance becomes dry and pulverizable on exposure to air, but becomes viscid again upon the addition of water.
BISCUITS (Cookies) The packing is usually good, but on account of the tin containers often being of very light gauge metal these are easily crushed and dented, and it is a fairly common occurrence to find tins in this condition in cases externally intact and in good order. Owing to the dampness of tropical climates, cardboard boxes are not advisable. An unevenly placed coating of sugar on biscuits may of itself result in their being delivered in a broken condition. Biscuits should be given dry, well ventilated stowage, and storage away from odorous cargoes. Should always be packed in airtight tins when intended for export.
BLACKLEAD (See Graphite)
BLANKETS (See Woolen Goods)
BLEACHING POWDER (Calcium Hypochlorite: Chloride of Lime) A white powder with a strong chlorine odor. Poisonous, and in confined stowage, holed or non-airtight tins give off a chlorine gas which will destroy any textile fabric, gunny bags, motor-car hood fabric, etc. The gas will also tarnish metals. Containers liable to burst if subjected to high temperatures. If unsuitably packed or exposed to air through breakage of containers the commodity will also deteriorate rapidly due to the action of carbon dioxide and moisture and develop into sub stances having little or no bleaching power. The powder will also lose its strength in this respect is stored for long periods. Corrosion of the containers is also rapid unless the drums are perfectly airtight. Shortage may be due to two causes: (1) Splitting of the seams and loosening of lids due to knocks, blows, or a fall in transit, and subsequent leakage. (2) Corrosive nature of contents on steel and iron, resulting in baling of drums or loosening of lids, and subsequent leakage. This corrosive action has been known to occur to drums during a voyage of no more than three weeks duration. See also CHLORIDE OF LIME and CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BLOOD (See Dried Blood). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BLOOD ALBUMEN (See Albumen, Blood). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BLUE STONE (See Copper Sulphate)
BOG ORE This commodity is sometimes utilized for the absorption of Sulphuric vapors, after which it becomes a hazardous cargo and should receive special treatment before shipment.
BONE AND BONE PRODUCTS CRUSHED BONES - Outturns may show a loss in weight or an excess, partly dependent upon the extent to which bones have been dried before shipment. May increase in weight by reason of the absorption of moisture or water, especially if shipped on deck. When shipped from tropical ports may have an excessive moisture content resulting in the development of heat and subsequent mold formation, with greater risk of rotting of the bags. In the event of crushed bones, intended for use in the manufacture of edible glucose of gelatine, becoming contaminated to such an extent as to render them unsuitable for this purpose it may be possible to dispose of the bones for glue making or other purposes. Where lower grade bones to be used for glue manufacture become contaminated with foreign matter it may be possible to agree a smaller depreciation after screening.
BONE AND BONE PRODUCTS GROUND BONE FERTILIZER AND MEAL - Ground Indian Bone, Steamed Bone Flour or Meal (Bone Meal) - Frequently used for cattle feeds and therefore should be sterile. As bone meal tends to rot the bags in which it is shipped, especially if wetted, shortage may result and the meal may become infected with bacteria, in which state it would be unfit for use as cattle feed. The meal may be re-sterilized by heat. In the usual course of events, bone meal is not subject to loss in weight. Shortage is, however, sometimes caused by defective bags permitting the powder to pass through the texture of the bags. If the bone meal is produced by crushing bones which have been insufficiently seasoned, or bones which are greasy, there is a danger of moisture developing and the cargo will start smelling. If bone meal from unseasoned and greasy bones is exported it is not only in process of deterioration but it may cause damage to delicate cargo stored nearby. Must be stored and stowed in a dry place. Bone meal is not affected by heat as regards its qualities. It may lose some weight depending on the degree of heat, but its intrinsic value remains unaffected. Contact with water, whether fresh or salt, may cause the bone meal to ferment and to burst the bags. In case of such contact, the sound goods must be separated from the wet, well dried and repacked in sound bags. If the contact with water has been undetected for a long time, bone meal becomes blackish. Meal damaged by contact with water does not lose much in value. It is sometimes advisable to try to sell such goods to firms dealing in fertilizer mixtures rather than through the usual dealers.
BONE AND BONE PRODUCTS BONE ASH (Animal Charcoal - Calcined Bones) - Used as a fertilizer and for bleaching sugar. It is liable to heat when not properly prepared. Excess moisture will cause caking and deterioration of the product. A dark-colored ash may be the result of improper calcination. Generally shipped loose. When bagged, chemical action tends to cause serious deterioration in the bags. Contact with seawater may render the product useless.
BONE AND BONE PRODUCTS BONE GRIST. An animal feed - Moisture may give rise to deterioration. Loss of weight may arise due to seepage and rotting of the bags. An alternative use for bone grist in a deteriorated condition is that of fertilizer.
BONE AND BONE PRODUCTS BONE SINEWS - The sinews should be free from adhering flesh when shipped. The commodity is liable to infestation by insects.
BONES AND BONE PRODUCTS Bones are generally shipped in bulk. If too fresh or if damp may heat up during the voyage. Should be kept in a dry, well- ventilated space. A loss of weight is not unusual. If shipped in bags, rotting of the bags may occur as bones are prone to sweating. All forms of bone constitute a fire hazard, the most dangerous being raw bone because of its higher fat content. Further, all are liable to mold growth if they get damp, excepting the calcined bone and bone charcoal. Damaged bone products are generally found of use for fertilizer purposes depending upon their condition and the nitrogen and phosphorous content. Bones may be subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Also, if bones are not perfectly dry, they may give off an objectionable odor detrimental to other cargoes. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BONES AND BONE PRODUCTS CALCINED BONE MID STERILIZED FEEDING BONE FLOUR (Bone Charcoal) - These are normally shipped in bags and generally do not cause trouble provided they are kept dry. Under these conditions no change or deterioration would be expected owing to the low moisture and fat content.
BRAN Subject to pressure caking which may be claimed by consignees as moisture damage. Since feed manufacturers inevitably process these materials through hammer mills caking is not important, unless definite moisture stains appear on the bags. Is subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Ferments and rapidly deteriorates after wetting.
BRASS PRODUCTS These include sheet, strip, tube, wire, wrought Shapes and castings. When the product is thin and of a high surface finish, scratches, gougings, tears, etc., may ruin the product to the extent of the damaged area. Seawater and fresh water produce stains, and seawater may give rise to corrosion. So long as the stains are superficial the product can be used, but if rough and pitted the material may be rejected. Manufacturing difficulties such as scabbiness, roughness or folds ("pinches") can be readily identified, as these cannot be produced by rough handling or by corrosion in transit. Cracks, particularly in tubes or pressings, may generally be attributed to mild corrosive conditions in transit in conjunction with the omission of a stress relieving heat treatment after manufacture. Surface defects, apart from corrosion pits, scratches and dents, can usually be attributed to faulty manufacture. Scabbiness is caused by the metal splashing when it is poured into the mold and cooling in droplets on the side. An oxide film is formed around these droplets which prevents them mixing with the rest of the metal in the ingot. Roughness is caused by the ingot sticking to the mold, causing a tearing of the surface on removal. Folds ("pinches") are caused in casting with too low a pouring rate allowing a series of oxide films to be formed. All these defects originate in a faulty ingot and the faults remain because of the inability of oxidized surfaces to weld together. Superficial staining or slight corrosion may be removed by the use of mild abrasives and provided the product is not made to accurate dimensions, scratches, etc., may be polished out with an abrasive. Ammonia solutions with, or without, mild abrasives may be used for cleaning by wiping provided the operation is controlled and the surface is washed thoroughly afterwards. There is the possibility that stressed brass may crack when brought into contact with ammonia. Sheets intended for utensil manufacture have a smooth finish. While scratches, gouging, tears, etc. may ruin the sheets for this purpose to the extent of the damaged area, the undamaged part of the sheets can be used for cutting segments of a suitable size from which utensils may also be made.
BRICKS (Chrome Magnesite) Chrome magnesite bricks are of necessity porous and will absorb moisture; this will cause a breakdown of the fabric causing crumbling, etc. Susceptibility to damage of this nature is well known to users of this class of brick, and steps are usually taken to protect the bricks from the elements while on open quays, etc. Chrome magnesite bricks vary considerably in color, and this is due entirely to the nature and type of chrome used in manufacture; color will vary front a light yellow to a dark brown, and contact with fresh water should not materially affect the original color of the bricks. Damaged bricks, if of no value for their original purpose, have a salvage value as "Hot Repair Cement."
BRISTLES Bristles, generally speaking, are indestructible except by fire, but if bristles have been wetted and are left in their wet condition for any length of time they will heat, and any delay in treatment will result in rotting. Bristles, when wetted, should be opened up and dried as soon as possible, and if this is done quickly enough no damage will result. Otherwise there is nothing that, in the ordinary course of events, would render bristles useless. Staining by oil can be removed by a proper process, but this should be left to a bristle expert. If light-colored bristles are stained and subsequently thoroughly washed, leaving a partial stain, they can be made darker and their value is in no way impaired. Bristles which may have been rendered useless for the job originally intended may be perfectly satisfactory for another job. Bristles are liable to attack by moth and vermin, but if wrapped in naphthalene-treated paper and packed with flaked naphthalene this will prevent any possibility of their becoming vermin infested during the voyage. Value of bristles varies in types and sizes, and this must be studied in arriving at the degree of depreciation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BRISTLES PIG BRISTLES - Usually shipped from China in stout cases which are often secondhand or renailed so that it is frequently impossible to decide whether they have been tampered with since packing. Shipped weights are usually stenciled on the cases, so that arrived weight is often a good guide as to possible shortage. The bristles are wrapped in bundles with cord bindings, paper wrapped, and marked with lengths. Often various lengths are packed in one case, so that in the event of the breakage of a case, if the bundles are broken or loose, only an expert can resort them as to lengths.
BRUNAK (Poonac) An oil cake made from the substance remaining after all the oil possible has been extracted from copra. Liable to spontaneous combustion. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BUCHU LEAVES (See Leaves)
BULBS Surveyors should consider damage in the light of stowage, packing and the probability of pre-shipment damage not immediately apparent Special stowage is usually required, and this should invariably be studied. Packing and stowage varies with season and the particular type of bulb. The following observations may be of assistance: Frost - Various types of bulbs are susceptible to damage by frost. Decomposition, humidity and slime are the external features, while internally discoloration occurs. This damage may occur while awaiting shipment or after discharge. Damage can also arise from sweat, brought about by fluctuation of temperature during voyage. Rooting - Usually, dried out roots signify old roots. With certain types of bulbs if roots longer than 3 cm. have developed and they are only few in number there is no likelihood of injurious effect as there are sufficient root-buds to ensure normal root growth. This assumes no damage to the basal-plate itself and the absence of penicillium (mold); otherwise damage to the bulbs is possible. With some bulbs, no ill-effects follow from rooting in transit unless there has been excessive delay. Sprouting - This usually occurs in spring shipments but is generally not harmful unless the sprouts are of an excessive length.
BULK OILS AND FATS When shipped in bulk, consignments may show loss of weight although there may be no apparent leakage. Experience has shown that many losses discovered at the port of discharge have been due to the fact that although the tank lids and manhole door are tested for tightness, after this has been completed the lids and the doors are again removed to facilitate the cleaning of the tank and, while they may be replaced by experts, there is no longer any certainty that they are oil-tight, in that the original hydro static test is no longer valid. In such circumstances, by reason of the considerable increase in temperature as the vessel proceeds through tropical waters, the oil level in the expansion trunk may rise to several feet above the tank top and the tank lid, causing the manhole doors to be constantly under pressure, and if these doors are not perfectly oil-tight there will be a loss approximately equal to the expansion. Other cases of alleged loss may be partly or wholly explained by nonfortuitous causes. For example, oils of the coagulating variety may leave a deposit on the walls of tanks both in ship and ashore. Puddling or sweeping gangs should be used towards the end of discharge to remove semi-solid oil from the ships tanks, and any hard oil remaining after completion of pumping must be collected by manual labor and added to the out-turn, otherwise a serious loss in weight may result. In certain oils and other bulk cargoes a percentage of loss by natural causes is allowed for in the sales contracts and a surveyor unfamiliar with bulk oils, ships calibrations, etc., would be wise to consult an expert or specialist well versed in such commodities. Loss in bulk oils or fats may arise when shipments are subject to several pumping operations after the shipped weights have been ascertained. At destination the oil or fat may be pumped from the ship's tanks into shore tanks which are not gauged. Consequently the landed weight can be ascertained only when the oil or fat is withdrawn from these tanks. Variations of moisture content may in some cases be explained by an examination of the vessel's tanks. The tanks of certain vessels which have no heating system are usually moist with water, whereas tanks fitted with a heating system dry up all moisture from the iron. Samples taken from the tanks may not always be truly representative of the moisture content. For example, a tank situated around the base of the ship's stem may be broad at one end, tapering to nothing at the other. It may not be possible to take a sample at the narrower end of the tank, and may also be impossible to take a sample from the center of the tank. This necessitates samples being taken only at the broader end, and such samples may therefore be unreliable. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BURLAP A cloth or fabric manufactured from jute yarn. Liable to spontaneous combustion if contaminated by oil. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
BUTTER (See Fats)
CABLE Sometimes, due to the side discs or battens of the drums having been smashed during transit, the top flakes of the coils may be found to be flattened and damaged. High tension armored and unarmored lead-sheathed cables do not damage by short contact with water, but ends must be sealed with lead to prevent moisture entering that way. Cotton-covered flexible cables are dangerous to use if damaged by water.
CALC-SPAR (See Iceland Spar)
CALCITE (See Iceland Spar)
CALCIUM BROMIDE Generally packed in fiber drums. If the drums are damaged during transit, the crystals may either be found to be commencing to cake or to have already formed large blocks. The crystals may also be found to be slightly discolored, freely deliquescing and contaminated, as they absorb moisture from the air with great avidity, which may result in a depreciation in value. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CALCIUM CARBIDE The contents may be found disintegrated due to the absorption of water from the air, consequent upon exposure. The product resulting from the incidental chemical change may be either: A "bone dry" finely powdered talc-like substance (Calcium Hydroxide), which when brought into contact with water will only give a very poor and insignificant yield of acetylene, as it will be almost entirely composed of "slaked lime," or a sludge. Since Calcium Carbide is known to evolve acetylene only slowly when exposed to damp air, the condition described under (a) would indicate that the actual wetting and/or commencement of the exposure must have taken place quite some time prior to arrival at destination.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE Liquefies extremely readily, and unless very well packed will absorb moisture from the air and become damp, wet, or even dissolve in its own water of absorption. Can be dehydrated by heat, or sold as a solution, against depreciation.
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE (See Bleaching Powder). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CALF-SKINS (See Hides and Skins)
CAMELINA OIL (False Flax Oil, Gold of Pressure Oil) Camelina oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained by cold pressing from the seed of Camelina sativa. It is a yellow oil with a flowery odor and a pleasant taste.
CAMOMILE FLOWERS Used in pharmaceutical preparations: from plants of the Aster family. Subject to infestation.
CAMPHOR Slowly volatilizes at ordinary temperatures; cases should be weighed to ascertain loss due to evaporation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CANADA BALSAM A form of Turpentine extracted from the tree UAbiesU UbalsameaU Used for making biological varnish and as a cement in the optical trade. Slowly dries to a transparent varnish when exposed to air. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CANDELILLA WAX A hard brown wax, obtained from the plant UPedilanthus pavonisU, used in the making of candles, varnishes and polishes. Is subject to a natural loss in weight due to chafing and seepage from container.
CANNED GOODS Generally speaking, canned goods, provided they have been properly treated and properly canned, will keep indefinitely, but there are various factors which will give rise to rapid deterioration of the product. For example, the acids of certain fruits and vegetables may give rise to pin holes in the metal containers. Any imperfection in the product will cause rapid deterioration. Pin holes may also be caused by rusting, and the rust in its turn may have been caused by other means than contact with fresh or salt water. In some instances, examination of rusted cans has demonstrated that the glue used to label the cans contained or subsequently absorbed a certain quantity of moisture which had caused the cans to become rusted and subsequently holed. Rusting and subsequent holing may also be due to sawdust from wet or unseasoned timber being used in the packing, or even to wet or unseasoned timber being used in the making of the cases. Blowing of tins is generally ascribed to improper closure of the tins or incomplete sterilization of the contents, but wetting or denting of the tins during transit may cause minute holes through which bacteria can gain access to the contents. Rusted or strained seams are a similar cause; improper or insufficient packing can account for a variety of damage in canned goods. Cans of sub standard quality and insufficient tightness of the seams are a further cause of blowing, as is insufficient thermal processing, and the surveyor should be careful to note in his report any such deficiency. Blowing of tins may cause rusting and staining of otherwise sound tins, and, where this has occurred, the surveyor should make particular mention of this fact in his report. Discoloration of goods in cans may be the result of the action of sulphur on the container, and certain types of goods should be packed in glass or enamel containers. If the air has not been completely extracted from the cans, or the cans have not been properly sealed or the contents not properly sterilized, deterioration may occur, which will be accelerated in high temperatures. Defects in tins may be obscured by labels, these defects being of such a nature as to allow the entry of bacteria or seepage of contents. Where rusting of cans has not given rise to leakage or blowing, it may be possible to remove the rust spots, treat the surface of the tins with a suitable oil and so restore their appearance. Similarly, if canned goods have been submerged in water they should be washed thoroughly in fresh water and dried immediately on exposure to the air, then coated with a suitable oil or grease to prevent rusting. If certain canned goods are subjected to unduly low temperatures, this may result in the crumbling of the contents of cans, the bursting of the seams and sweating and rusting. Provided the cans have not burst, nor the seams loosened, they should be allowed to remain in that condition until such time as they are ready for use, when they should be allowed slowly to assume the natural temperature. Claims arise on account of sweat damage when shipment takes place in the spring from ports of British Columbia to Canadian East Coast ports, via Panama, due to the fluctuation of temperatures during the voyage. When loaded at Vancouver, or other ports where the temperatures are low, the goods are subjected to increased temperatures during the passage through the Canal, causing condensation when the vessel once again enters the lower temperatures of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. As these vessels usually carry shipments of lumber, the risk of sweat damage is increased. An investigation carried out on the West Coast of North America disclosed that heaviest sweat damage can be traced to Canneries not equipped with pre-cooling warehouses. Shipments which left the Canneries without pre-cooling and traveled by trucks through cold nights on their way to the harbor were found to contain cans with moisture spots under the labels, and along the rims or tops of the cans. Unsuitable or insufficient packing can account for a variety of damage in canned goods. "Lip-lifting" may be caused by the upper and lower edges of cans working against one another during transit. Crushing or denting reduces the cubic capacity of the tin and distends the ends, giving the appearance of blowing. Care should be taken to identify this class of damage. Denting or springing giving the appearance of blowing may be due to the manner in which they have been pneumatically closed, or due to the cans being overfilled. Generally speaking, where a can is not leaking or the seams are not seriously damaged, the contents may be edible. Tins packed in boxes can become defective through production faults. Defective tins with these faults can be divided into two groups - "Hollow sounders" and "Leakers." Hollow sounders can be identified by tapping them at both ends, and leakers can be recognized by swelling.
CANNED GOODS BEEF (corned, stewed, etc.) - Is not subject to such troubles as ham and pork products, and is not normally damaged by heat.
CANNED GOODS CANNED FISH - Experience has shown that Smoked Sea Salmon, packed in oil in tins, is liable to decomposition if not subject to heat sterilization. In one such case a whole consignment of 5,000 tins was found to have become decomposed, although externally the tins were in perfect order, being clean and free from rust-spotting or any other signs of external damage.
CANNED GOODS CANNED JAMS - Split seams in the cans are not necessarily due to handling or external cause. They may result from the development of hydrogen gas, to which jams containing seeds are subject.
CANNED GOODS CANNED MILK - Condensed and Evaporated. The damage to the labels is frequently caused by rust which may be attributed to condensation during transit in the carrying vessel, brought about by temperature changes. This particularly occurs when the consignments are loaded in European ports during the winter months and then exported to the Tropics. Experiments in stowing milk in deep tanks with controlled temperature and ventilation have proved that rust damage to the cans and labels may be frequently eliminated. Canned milk, particularly the cheaper grades, is packed in cartons which often cannot withstand normal handling, and subsequently the cans become dented. A brownish discoloration of condensed milk may be indicative of the age of the contents.
CANNED GOODS COLLUPULIN (in tins) - This is an industrial fermenting agent used in the brewing of beer. Exposure to the atmosphere for several days causes rapid and complete deterioration.
CANNED GOODS HAM AND PORK PRODUCTS - All canned goods of this description are liable to deteriorate if subjected to excessive temperatures giving rise to fermentation internally. It is not necessary for them to be stowed near engine or boiler room to create this condition, as it may occur in ordinary stowage if the vessel is proceeding through hot climates.
CANVAS DUCK (See Cottons)
CAPE ALOES (See Aloes)
CAPSICUMS Also known as Cayenne pepper, chilies, Guinea pepper. Spanish pepper, etc. Used in sauces, pickles, etc. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. If not properly dried out at the time of bagging, the chilies are liable to go moldy and, if packed tightly, to generate heat. This is aggravated by high humidity while awaiting shipment. Fresh water damage causes moldiness and blackening of chilies, which also tend to clog into lumps, making it relatively easy to separate the damaged portion from the sound. Chilies are very liable to rat infestation, which necessitates reconditioning through a plant to render them fit for human consumption. In stowage they require good ventilation as they give off a pungent smell. See also PEPPER and SPICES. Capsicums, which are often called chili peppers or hot peppers and may be dried or pickled in vinegar, are the fully ripened, bright red, long and variably sized fruits (length: 5 - 12 cm; diameter up to 5 cm) of Capsicum annuum, which is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Capsicums (native to South America) which are used as a spice are generally dried and usually finely ground in the importing country, with the hotness of the powder being determined by the proportion of seeds and partitions added. The berry fruits of the capsicum are smaller and narrower than those of the sweet pepper and are somewhat bent with a pointed tip to the pod. As with chili pods, the distinctly hot flavor is due to the alkaloid capsaicin which is primarily present in the partitions inside the pod and in the seeds. Oil content: 10.0 - 13.0% essential oils of which 0.15 - 0.50% capsaicin. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CARBON (Activated) (See Activated Carbon). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CARBON BLACK If bag is torn, carbon black will penetrate like a thin liquid or a gas into almost every commodity within reach. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CARDAMOMS The cardamoms of commerce are the fruits and seeds of the cardamom plant and they comprise one of the most important and costly spices of the world. Cardamoms are liable to loss in weight particularly if immaturely picked. Heat does not affect the value of cardamoms, it only results in loss in weight through over-drying of the outer shell which contains the seeds. Contact with sea-water or fresh water or sweat during voyage results in the outer shell containing the seeds becoming blackish. Depending upon the degree of contact with water, cardamoms may suffer badly. In case of damage through water, damaged goods should be separated as quickly as possible from sound goods by picking by hand which ever is the smaller quantity - the damaged or the sound. See also SPICES.
CARDBOARD Cardboard is a flat packaging material consisting of paper stock and generally being of high-quality stock composition (e.g. white mechanical pulp board). Its basis weight is 250 - 500 g/m2. If cardboard has a basis weight of between 150 and 250 g/m2, it is described as light, while cardboard with a basis weight of 500 - 600 g/m2 is described as heavy. Cardboard may either be single ply or consist of several paper webs couched together mechanically or stuck (laminated) together. Boxboard (carton board) is used to make the blanks from which cartons and the like are made. A distinction is drawn between the following types of cardboard: Chromo imitation board: chromo imitation board is a cardboard couched from several plies and provided with a smooth coating on one side while in the board machine. Chromo imitation board generally consists of outer plies on the recto and verso, intermediate plies and fillers of wood pulp or waste paper. It is designed for producing cartons and is suitable for printing. Its basis weight is 225 - 500g/m2. Chromo carton board: chromo board is a chromo imitation board which is coated on one or both sides outside the board machine. Its color is pure white. Folding carton board: folding carton board is a multi-ply cardboard sometimes with coated recto. The fold edges are pre-marked with grooves. Cup board: cup board is a cardboard which may or may not contain wood. It is used to produce cups for the food and drinks industry. Its basis weight is 200 - 250 g/m2. Drawing cardboard: drawing cardboard is smooth, thin, white paperboard or smooth white paper for drawing purposes.
CARNARINA A powdered-blood fertilizer. Subject to deterioration if exposed to humidity.
CARNAUBA WAX A hard wax, obtained from the leaves of the wax palm, and used in the manufacture of candles, varnishes, gramophone records, etc. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to chafing and seepage through containers.
CAROB BEANS (See Beans, Dried)
CARPETS Wool is generally used for the pile of carpets, but goat hair, mohair, cotton and man-made fibers can be present. The carpet back is usually woven from cotton and jute, but linen, hemp, rayon and paper yarns can be used. DAMAGE BY WATER AND DAMPNESS - Bleeding of pile yarns can be caused by contact with alkaline solutions. Drastic alteration in shade can occur if the carpet is in contact with salt or contaminated with urine. Staining can occur as a result of color migration from the various components under wet conditions. Shading, which is particularly noticeable in plain carpets, is due to pressure on the pile yarns altering the position of some of the tufts and thus causing an apparent change of shade. Shading is greatly accelerated by pressure under wet or damp conditions; this is a purely optical effect, fundamental to pile fabrics. The pile can also be damaged by insects. Mildew and/or bacterial damage can occur if the carpet is allowed to stand in a damp condition. Immersion in seawater can be dangerous, as the carpet-back will not dry out properly until all the salt has been removed. The backing yarns can also be damaged by insects, and mineral acids. Soiling of the carpet due to inadequate packing generally occurs at the edges. Staining can be caused by excessive heat melting the tar present in tar-paper wrappers. Damage arising from wetting or dampness may be more extensive than would appear from a visual inspection of an affected package. When damage is found the carpets affected should be opened out and dried as soon as possible. If the carpets remain in a damp condition for a prolonged period rot will set in and the goods may become permanently damaged. Carpets damaged by seawater should be well washed in cold water before drying, otherwise they will not become thoroughly dry, and later the jute or other cellulosic backing yarns are liable to rot. Those damaged by dirty water should be cleansed before drying. Prompt action will minimize damage, and the services of dyers and cleaners or launderers may be of assistance. Carpets affected by tar stain or contaminated with oil or grease often may be restored by dry cleaning. It is possible to mend small holes or tears in patterned carpets, but repairs on plain carpets are not always satisfactory. Carpets and runners are textile floor coverings which are mainly transported in rolls or bales. Carpets may be produced by knotting, weaving, knitting, stitching/stitch-bonding, electrostatic flocking and adhesive bonding. Wool and synthetic fibers (polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, polyester) are used for soft hair carpets, with goat hair, mohair and cotton also being used. The carpet backing may consist of woven cotton or jute or be made from polyamide. In tufted carpets, the foundation of the carpets consists of jute or polypropylene and the actual backing consists of foam rubber or PVC, or alternatively a second type of foundation is used which may consist of jute or other fibers. A distinction is also drawn between: hand-knotted, machine-knotted hand-woven and machine-woven carpets Knotted carpets are hand or machine-knotted carpets. Hand knotted carpets from the Orient are known as oriental carpets or rugs. The pile is knotted in rows in the vertically tensioned warp. The best known types of hand-knots are the carpets Turkish and Persian knots. Oriental carpets are named after their place of origin, for example Afghan (Afghanistan), Bokhara, Baluchistan, Haris, Kirman, Shirvan, Tabriz and Smyrna. In addition to these knotted-pile carpets, there are also "kilims", or knitted, two-sided carpets, which are thinner and generally used as door curtains and bedspreads. Carpets are a valuable cargo.
CARTHAMIN (See Safflower)
CASEIN A product of milk used in the manufacture of prepared foods, paints, glues, plastics, etc. Commercial casein of good quality is a dry, friable, white or slightly brown powder. Casein of inferior quality has an unpleasant smell and is usually moist and dark colored, which may lead surveyors to believe that it has been damaged during transit. Quality depends upon the nitrogen and albumen content. As the commodity has a very sensitive nature and is prone to absorb moisture, care must be taken in stowage, i.e., insufficient dunnage or clearance from ship sides, steel bulkheads, etc., sometimes causes damage resulting in loss of nitrogen by wetting or absorption of moisture.
CASHEW NUTS AND KERNELS (See Nuts and Kernels)
CASINGS The intestines of cattle, sheep, pigs, etc., used as containers for sausages, etc. Insufficient brine in the casks may bring about putrefaction of the contents. Deterioration of the casings may be a result of faulty preparation.
CASSAVA ROOT (Manioc Root) (See Roots)
CASSAVA ROOT MEAL Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out.
CASSIA FISTULA (See Barks)
CAST IRON PIPES Pipes with a bell or flange end are most often broken or cracked on the straight or spigot end, and when this occurs, the damaged portion may be cut off and sold as scrap while the remainder of the pipes may be salvaged as sound short lengths. Spun cast iron pipes are quite easily cut with a cold chisel. For sizes up to 10-in., a cold chisel about 1-in., wide and a 4-lb. hammer should do the job satisfactorily. For sizes over 10-in, to 20-in., a blacksmith's cutter and 6-lb. hammer give the best results. Method - Place under the pipe where the cut is to be made a suitable piece of timber; a piece of 4-in. X 2-in., would do. The purpose of the timber is to assist in turning the pipe during cutting operations. It also provides a solid foundation when the chisel is struck by the hammer. This point is important because after the pipe has been nicked around with the chisel it is the jar from the hammer that causes it to crack off, therefore it is necessary to have a solid support. The timber under the cut also ensures that when the piece breaks off it breaks clean and does not leave a ragged edge. After placing the pipe on timber, measure from spigot end the length to be cut off. Spot the distance in several places on the circumference of the pipe, then place piece of string or tape round the pipe, lining up the spots, and scribe with pencil or sharp-pointed instrument. Next take chisel, and hammer and cut on line, turning pipe so that the blows take place on the top of the pipe. (It will be found that when the cut has been deepened the blows are more effective on the top of the pipe.) The first cut around the pipe should be done lightly; each successive time around the blows should increase in weight. This is explained by the fact that, if the blows are too heavy before any depth is cut into the pipe, longitudinal cracks appear in the pipe, which means the pipe would have to be cut again. The chisel should be drawn through the cut, allowing the cutting edge to overlap slightly the previous position. This provides a more uniform cut and causes the break to come away clean. After about three times around it should then be noticed that a fracture has occurred at one point. The chisel and hammer are the applied near the fracture, which progresses until the piece drops off. An investigation into the cause of unexplained hairline cracks in centrifugally spun cast iron pipes eventually showed that these were due to the cooling process. The pipes were apparently laid on the open ground, while still warm, and contact of one section of the pipe with the cold earth caused an uneven cooling, resulting in this hairline splitting which was observed at destination.
CAST IRON SCRAP Difference in shipped and landed weights may be due to shedding of foreign matter, cement, rust scales, etc.
CASTOR OIL (Indian) This is produced by crushing castor seed. The qualities are: (1) Castor oil first crushing; (2) Castor oil refined for medicinal purposes. FIRST CRUSHING - This is the castor oil expelled from castor seed when crushing them without using any heat near the presses or expellers. It generally contains a low acidity free fatty acid, below 1%. It is exported under the name of first crushing. CASTOR OIL, COMMERCIAL - This castor oil contains a higher acidity. For exports it is the standard not to contain more than free fatty acid 2%. Exports are nowadays affected mostly in bulk, i.e. without containers, by storing in steamers' tanks. In some cases (especially where either the quantities are small or steamers to the particular destination have no tanks) the oil is exported in new or second hand steel drums of the usual capacity of 40-45 gallons. The drums must be free of rust and well cleaned before filling. Also it must be made certain that no water is contained in the drums. Castor oil is not liable to loss in weight or to deterioration through inherent vice. No special stowage is required. Proximity to the boilers, combined with a long voyage, may result in the free fatty acid content increasing. If water is left in the drums in which castor oil is filled, the quality deteriorates, and if the proportion of the water is high then at times the oil so packed develops a bad smell similar to that emitted by dirty water which has been stored for a long time. The quality of the oil must be examined by drawing samples from all drums for analysis. By appearance one can tell whether the castor oil is of a good quality or not. Rubbing a small quantity (a few drops) between the palms of the hands gives at times a characteristic smell from which it may be possible to determine whether castor oil is in the process of deterioration, or in good condition. Castor oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from the seeds of the castor-oil plant by hot or cold pressing. Castor oil is not an edible oil but rather a high-quality lubricating oil. Castor oil is indigestible to humans. See also BULK OILS AND FATS.
CASTOR SEEDS (See Oilseeds). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CATECHU (Terra Japonica - Cutch - Katha -- Gambier) An extract from the plant Acacia Catechu used medicinally and for tanning purposes. Will liquefy in high temperatures and harden in cooler temperatures. Liable to absorb moisture, also to lose weight and suffer loss through drainage. Usually packed in cube form in wooden cases, and there may be considerable loss in weight of the wooden packing cases after a few weeks, due to damp timber having been used. CATECHU - If the liquor of extraction is allowed to cool before concentration, crystallization will occur and the crystallized solid can be separated from the liquor by filtration. This solid is known as "Catechin" or "Katha" and the filtrate which is then usually concentrated to a solid is known as "cutch." CUTCH - A tannin having a blackish brown crystalline appearance. Is brittle and susceptible to heat and moisture, heat causing the cutch to soften. It dissolves in water and moisture will cause the boxes or bags to become stained. Should not be stacked more than ten bags high nor subjected to over stowage by heavy goods. Bags of cutch unevenly stacked are liable to break. Melts easily. in which condition it becomes blocked. This may be regarded as a normal incident to transit. KATHA - Usually marketed in tablet form. The outside of a cake varies in color from light gray to a very dark brown and the appearance of the fracture is that of colored chalk or clay. Damage to the packing case should not cause damage to the products inside except through loss, and provided the gunny remains intact there should be little loss. These products should not be exposed to wet as they are hygroscopic substances and, in the case of Katha particularly, if allowed to become damp, will get moldy.
CAUSTIC POTASH (Potassium Hydroxide) Generally packed in iron drums. On exposure, it soon starts to deliquesce due to absorption of water and carbon dioxide from the air. In extreme cases, the remaining contents may be found to have become a semi-liquid, coffee-colored sludge of no commercial or practical value. In the majority of cases, it will only be found to be slightly discolored and deliquescing. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CAUSTIC SODA (Sodium Hydroxide) White crystals, or lumps, or liquid. It is very corrosive and destroys organic matter. Usually shipped in the solid form in metal drums, which should be strong and air tight, as the chemical absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. It is commonly carried in liquid form in chemical carriers, tank ships and tank barges. On occasion drums arrive holed due to rough handling or use of can hooks, etc., or due to other cargo such as pointed slats having been stowed or dropped on top of the drums at some stage of the journey. If such should prove to be the case, the content may be found to be slightly discolored, freely deliquescing and contaminated due to their having absorbed moisture and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It should be noted that the portion which has deliquesced consists of good caustic liquor and can be used for its original purpose. The drums should be reconditioned as soon as possible after arrival, to prevent further exposure. In damaged condition may still be used for certain detergent purposes. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CELLULOSE (Chemical Pulp) Chemical pulp is a man-made fiber of cellulose which is obtained from plant material (95% from wood) and is further processed predominantly in the paper industry, white pulp being used to produce printing and writing paper and brown pulp being used to produce paperboard and packing paper. Chemical pulp is subdivided into the following groups: -sulfate pulp -sulfite pulp -semichemical pulp -linters -mechanical pulp (MP, TMP, CTMP) in each case fully bleached, semibleached or unbleached. Cellulose raw materials include all cellulose-containing materials, such as wood, cotton, straw and other annual plants. Yield varies between 15 and 80% depending on the raw material and processing method used. During production, the cellulose fibers are separated from one another, either by pressure boiling (chemical pulping) or by mechanical comminution: -alkaline pressure boiling = sulfate pulp -acidic or neutral pressure boiling = a) sulfite pulp or b) semichemical pulp -mechanical comminution = mechanical pulp (MP and TMP) -CTMP is subjected initially to chemical/thermal pretreatment and is then mechanically comminuted, thereby assuming an intermediate position. Pressure boiling is followed by multi-stage bleaching. Unbleached chemical pulp is brown. Once dried, chemical pulp is sold commercially in sheets, pressed blocks or rolls. A distinction is drawn between papermaking pulps and special pulps. Special pulps are individually produced for their particular field of use, the important factor generally being chemical purity. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CELLULOSE TAPE (Scotch Tape) Is susceptible to heating. Rolls of tape so damaged may be found to have lost their entire adhesive properties. The individual dispensers may be "bone dry" and unblemished. The original adhesive substances on the sealing surfaces will be found to have dried out completely. On unwinding the tape, the layer of dried- up gum cones off in the form of a dry flimsy film, and the resultant bare tape, in all probability, will be found to be covered with opaque patches and blotches, and will commence to curl up. Always provided the goods have not been shipped from old stocks, damage as described may have arisen from contact with heat due to bad stowage and/or improper ventilation on the voyage. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CEMENT Tends to deteriorate with age, usually due to absorption of moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. The deterioration may not be detected visibly, but the cement depreciates considerably in value. Separate consignments should be kept clear of each other as confusion often occurs in allocating spillage on board. The commodity should be stowed clear of steel, and damp ceilings and dunnage. To avoid excessive loss this commodity should, if possible be discharged in trays. Damage is usually aggravated by discharge into sheds or wharves where cement becomes mixed with sweepings and extraneous matter. When wet it becomes hard and is of no value but can occasionally be sold as a filler for bulkheads, etc. Granulated cement may be used in the making of cement piping and flooring Cement which has been in a ship's hold for a considerable length of time has a tendency to become brick hard, but this may be only superficial. On scratching the outer surface with a nail, it may be found that only a very thin outer film has been affected. Cement may be bagged when hot and consequently paper bags tear very easily. If cement in paper bags is stowed more than 15 high the strain on the lower tiers may result in tears with further handling.
CEREALS It is universally realized that cereals will mildew in damp storage. In terms of moisture content, the safe maximum for cereals is in the region of 15%, but with other feeding stuffs the figure may be lower, e.g. about 12% for cattle cake and 9.5% for bone meal. Nevertheless these figures all correspond to the same "equilibrium humidity" of 70-75% R.H. If the storage humidity greatly exceeds this figure, the outer layers of bulked material may be expected to take up moisture and develop mold growth. CORN - Corn (Zea mays) is a type of cereal belonging to the grass family (Gramineae), the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). Corn is a monoecious grass species, the female inflorescences (ears of corn) of which are sheathed with long bracts (shucks) and located in the axils of the central stem leaves, while the male inflorescences form large terminal tassels. An ear of corn contains on average 500 - 1000 kernels. Grain size: diameter 5 mm Oil content: 4.2 - 5.4% RYE - Rye (Secale cereale) is a type of cereal belonging to the grass family (Gramineae), the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). It is suspected to have originated in the Caucasus region and reached Europe approx. 3000 years ago. Rye is primarily sown in autumn, when it is known as winter rye, while summer rye is cultivated in spring. On the basis of cultivated area, rye is the least widespread type of cereal. Grain size: diameter 1.5 mm, length 5 mm Oil content: approx. 2%
CERESIN An extract from petroleum. Susceptible to leakage through heat.
CETACEUM (See Spermaceti)
CHAMPAGNE May be damaged by heat or severe cold.
CHARCOAL Can absorb moisture up to 20% of its own weight. Conversely may also be subject to natural loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CHEESE Strong tendency to sweating when taken from cool storage into a humid atmosphere, which will also create conditions of mold. If cheeses are not to be landed into cool storage they should be taken from the wrappers and wiped off, unless these wrappers are air and moisture proof. Sun heat tends to transform the cheese into a less solid state, cracking the sides and so enabling the cheese to break out. Cheeses, when subjected to heat, may swell to twice their normal size due to gas-forming bacteria being present when the cheeses were made, heat causing the bacteria to become very active and reproductive. All types are subject to inherent vice, which may be further aggravated by contact with heat. Cheese which has suffered in this way may be found to be covered with a lush growth of fungi and emitting a foul odor. Depending on the type of cheese involved, it may also be found to be soft, pulpy or hard and abounding with mites and slightly decomposed. Dutch cheeses, if shipped before they have been allowed to dry sufficiently, may swell, crack and become mildewed, although the interior may be unaffected. Mold found on some cheeses may be superficial only and can often be wiped off and will not recur under proper stowage conditions. Internally the cheese should be sound and in a perfectly edible condition. Cheese is subject to a natural loss in weight. It should be carried in cool storage on tropical voyages, otherwise it may melt or mold may form. Cheese is a dairy product, made from milk. According to the German cheese-making regulations, cheese is defined as "fresh products or products at varying degrees of ripeness which are made from coagulated cheese-making milk". Cheese production may be divided into the following stages: - Curdling of the milk: curdling may also be known as milk coagulation. By adding substances which promote curdling (rennet, lactic acid bacteria), the protein and fat constituents are precipitated out of the milk. - Curd formation: during curd formation, the liquid parts (whey) of the curdled milk are separated from the solid parts (curd). - Ripening of the cheese: the cheese is ripened by the addition of microorganisms.
CHEESE The different varieties of cheese available number several thousand. They are classified according to the following criteria: - milk used (e.g. cow's, sheep's, goat's milk etc.) - water content of the non-fat cheese solids - curdling method - fat content of the solids A small number of standard cheese varieties is listed below: - Hard cheese: Emmental, Cheddar - Soft cheese: Limburger, Brie, Camembert - Slicing cheese: Gouda, Tilsit, Edam - Semisoft slicing cheese: Butterkase (a rich creamy cheese) - Curd cheese: Quark, layered Quark - Sour milk cheese: hand-formed curd cheese, Harz Mountain cheese
CHEMICALS (General) Care should be taken to differentiate between the natural corrosion of containers with subsequent loss of contents, and loss due to old or secondhand containers. Some chemicals absorb moisture upon exposure to the atmosphere, when the substance is said to be deliquescent, and the phenomenon is known as deliquescence. Efflorescence is the converse phenomenon, when a substance evolves moisture upon exposure to the atmosphere and is said to be efflorescent. These phenomena require to be taken into consideration when shortage or excess weight out-turns cannot otherwise be explained. (See also under individual headings.) See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CHERRIES IN BRINE The customary packing for these goods is a new wooden barrel, paraffined, with six iron hoops. The fruit is packed at the time of gathering and exportation may take place some months, perhaps a year, later. Some shippers do not pay much attention to the fact that during the time of storage the hoops have become some what slack, nor do they take care to replenish the S.O.2, with the result that the produce goes bad. The manner in which a barrel is made may be responsible for, or may contribute to leakage. Wood shrinks in the direction of the annual rings about twice as much as radial. Therefore it is customary in the coopering business to use only staves with vertical annual rings so that towards the circumference of the barrel there is less radial shrinkage, thus minimizing the shrinkage as far as the circumference of the barrel is concerned. If this system is departed from, the shrinkage of the timbers may be considerable and so cause not only leakage through shrinkage but loosening of the bands, which might even result in the collapse of the casks. In the making of barrels, the procedure is sometimes to put together the staves and bottom and lid boards so that they form the barrel, then to fit iron hoops or bands, the whole thereafter being placed in water so that the staves become swollen and the barrels thereby made tight, the barrels being waxed internally beforehand. In such cases, particularly if unsatisfactory staves have been used, shortage may be caused by the staves being too fresh and therefore having a high moisture content before being subjected to water immersion, resulting in the staves drying out too quickly, giving rise to rapid shrinkage which causes the hoops or bands to loose their grip and the commodity to be lost through the loosened staves.
CHESTNUTS (See Nuts and Kernels)
CHICKPEAS A very delicate commodity which has to be transported within 4-5 months of harvesting; if stored for a longer period it invariably becomes contaminated by weevil.
CHICORY (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
CHILLIES (See Capsicums and Spices)
CHINA CLAY When China Clay is intended for use in the manufacture of paper, damage by salt water renders the clay useless. The carrying vessel needs to be cleaned, as particles of rust, coal, etc., entail considerable work in cleaning the clay. China Clay has a tendency to rot bags, due possibly to moisture content combined with acidity of the clay.
CHINA WOOD OIL An oil extracted from seeds of the nut of the tung tree. See TUNG OIL, and also BULK FATS AND OILS.
CHLORIDE OF LIME (See Bleaching Powder). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CHOCOLATE Chocolates are likely to be affected by the following: (a) moisture (b) heat (c) sudden changes in temperature (d) infestation by insects if containing dried fruits (e) age High temperature and moisture will result in the exudation of the cocoa fat, which then forms a whitish covering on the surface. Heat will also cause the surface of the chocolate to be pitted and the chocolate itself to become friable. Chocolate which has been exposed to low temperatures suffers no real damage; while the chocolate remains cold there is little, if any, change in appearance, but when it is restored to normal temperature it tends to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which may result in discoloration of the surface. Variations in temperature will, amongst other things, produce sweating which, in the form of droplets on the chocolate, dissolves some of the sugar content and produces mildew or sugar bloom. Bloom on chocolate is sometimes mistaken for mildew, but this may be caused by the natural separation of the fats at the surface under certain conditions. Conditions of dampness will also affect the appearance of chocolate, and shipments to the Tropics may have a white coating due to climatic conditions. In these cases, while the appearance may be affected, the food value is not usually reduced. Affected chocolate may sometimes be reconditioned by melting and adding the required quantity of cocoa fat. If cocoa fat is not available, it may be possible to sell the affected chocolate or pastry making. Chocolate containing dried fruits is liable to infestation by insects. This type of chocolate does not keep well. Chocolate is also affected by age, the fat becoming rand Chocolate made with honey instead of sugar may suffer loss of appearance due to the moisture content of the honey and the resulting formation of mold. The bursting of chocolate creams may be due to yeast or bacteria fermenting the sugar. See also CONFECTIONERY.
CHOCOLATE (SLAB CHOCOLATE) Chocolate is a product of cocoa, made by mixing cocoa mass, cocoa butter and sugar (sucrose) using special machinery, with so-called conching (kneading) having a considerable influence on the quality of the chocolate. Conching reduces water content, improves texture and moderates the bitterness and aroma of the chocolate. In conching, the rolled mixture is refined by uninterrupted shearing to yield a homogeneous texture, with lecithin increasing the fluidity of the liquid chocolate. The greater the cocoa content, the higher the quality of the chocolate. Thus, bitter chocolate, with a cocoa mass content of 60%, is the highest grade of chocolate.
CHROME MAGNESITE BRICKS (See Bricks - Chrome Magnesite)
CHROME ORE (See Ores)
CINNAMON LEAF OIL (In drums) Cinnamon Leaf Oil should be shipped in perfect tin-lined drums; if the oil comes into contact with any other type of metal such as galvanized iron, plain iron or steel drums, it becomes discolored. Such discoloration does not necessarily affect the value of the oil but the discoloration is accompanied by the formation of sediment which has to be removed by a filtering process and this in turn reduces the delivered weight as compared with the shipped weight.
CITRONELLA OIL (In drums) Many citronella oil shipments go forward in second-hand lubricating oil drums which cannot be properly cleaned prior to filling. In consequence, the citronella oil becomes slightly contaminated by the lubricant originally in the drum. The practice is to fill such drums with citronella oil and after allowing the oil to stand for a length of time the particles of dirt and lubricant, which had previously adhered to the sides of the drum, sink to the bottom the container; the major portion is then removed by suction. A small portion, however, is bound to remain, but is accepted by the trade, as the percentage is fractional and easily removed by the consignee with the help of filters.
CITRUS FRUITS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
CITRUS SYRUP As is common with liquids shipped in wooden barrels, leakage may be due to the fact that the barrel hoops have not been adjusted to take up the slack which can develop in storage, with the result that general slackness of hoops causes the staves to yield to normal pressure in stowage. It is possible that at the time of discharge the barrels may show no evidence of this pressure, but it may be found by careful examination that the staves were not being sufficiently gripped by the bands. In the case of citrus syrup and other similar commodities, barn may be waxed internally, and therefore any slackness would not become apparent until they had been subjected to pressure in stowage, and for this reason slackness may escape notice at the time of shipment. See also FRUIT PULP.
CLOTH (Fabric) Textiles or textile goods are semifinished and finished products made from fabrics and cloth , fabrics and cloth being textile products made from yarn generally arranged in two directions: warp yarns, which run lengthwise, and weft yarns, which run crosswise. Fabrics or textiles are named for the yarns used to make them, e.g. cotton, woolen, silk, linen, hemp, jute fabrics. They display more or less the same characteristics as the constituent fibers of the yarns which are used to make the textiles. For the aspects of transport risk assessment of interest here, this term is understood to cover goods of fibrous material in the various stages of processing. A distinction must be drawn between: - textiles/fabrics - general - industrial textiles/fabrics Industrial textiles and fabrics include not only fabrics used in industry but also special protective clothing and uniform. Textiles and fabrics may consist of natural fibers of either animal or vegetable origin, such as cellulose/viscose, or of manmade fibers, such as polyamides, or of mixtures of these materials. As far as processing stages are concerned, a rough distinction may be drawn between: - semi-manufactured articles - finished articles (finished products) Textiles and fabrics should be treated as valuable cargo. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CLOTHING Second-hand clothing if shipped in bales is liable to become worm-eaten during transit, especially in warm climates. Ready-made garments are mass-produced finished textile products of the clothing industry. They are made from many different fabrics and yarns. Their characteristics depend on the fibers used in their manufacture. Ready-made garments are divided into the following types: - Outer clothing: workwear and uniform, leisure wear, sportswear (e.g. suits, pants, dresses, ladies' suits, blouses, blazers, jackets, cardigans, pullovers, coats, sports jackets, skirts, shirts (short- or long-sleeved), ties, jeans, shorts, T-shirts, polo shirts, sports shirts, tracksuits, bathing shorts, bathing suits, bikinis etc.) - Underclothing (underwear): jersey goods, lingerie (e.g. underpants, undershirts, briefs, socks, stockings, pantyhose etc.) Most jersey underwear consists of knitwear made from cotton or synthetic filament warp-knit goods (Dederon, nylon). Knitwear is divided into fully fashioned and cut goods: - Fully fashioned jersey goods are produced in finished form and size with securely finished edges; they are a high-quality product, as the loops cannot run at the edges. - Cut jersey goods are cut from tubular knit piece goods and sewn together; they are a lower value product, as the loops can run at the edges and the fit of the garment is not as good as in the case of fully fashioned jersey goods as the knitted fabric may twist out of shape.
CLOVE OIL Oil may be discolored by foreign matter from the drum unless it is tin lined, but this can be rectified with the aid of filters. This process will not remove actual change of color of the oil itself.
CLOVES Subject to a natural loss due to drying out. See also SPICES.
COAL All classes of coal are liable to spontaneous combustion, the softer types to a greater extent than others, and therefore adequate ventilation of holds is essential to minimize this risk. If damaged by heating or combustion, the damaged portion should be separated as soon as possible from the sound portion, to prevent further spread of the damage. Coal shipped in a wet condition may be subject to a loss in weight by evaporation, but the comparison of analyses taken prior to loading and after delivery can determine to a large extent the approximate loss in weight. It must be borne in mind, however, that the loading or discharge of coal in rain can result in an increase in discharge weight over shipped weight. Some classes of coal, especially the gas type, suffer deterioration or depreciation by contact with salt water, but are hardly if ever affected by contact with fresh water. A certain normal loss is to be expected through the operation of loading and discharge. This loss can be ascertained by a comparison with the average loss on delivery which is normally found. Particular care should be exercised in arriving at depreciation or loss arising out of heat, fire or water damage. In the case of heat and fire, the first effect of this would be a loss of calorific value, to determine which the assistance of an analyst or chemical consultant is essential. In dealing with loss or damage to this commodity too much reliance should not be placed on tallies or casual tests, and agreement should only be reached after proper analysis.
COAL TAR A residue from coal or oil, which is highly odorous and detrimental to other cargoes, and varies in consistency from semi-liquid to hard. Packed in secondhand metal drums. According to the wear of these drums loss through leakage may be more or less considerable. The usual causes of leakage are the wear of the drums, the wear of the stopper, and the weakness of the ribs. The most suitable packing for the tropics are sealed metal drums. See also IMDG Code.
COATED PAPER (See Transparent Wrapping Paper). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COCA COLA CONCENTRATE Generally packed in wooden kegs. If the kegs are broken, the concentrate soon becomes contaminated and decomposed, consequent upon exposure. See also remarks under FRUIT PULP.
COCOA BEANS Sometimes shipped with a franchise to allow for normal shrinkage. Cocoa beans are usually given a natural fermentation, mainly to facilitate removal of the pulp. If allowed to retain over 9% moisture, mildew will develop. Cocoa made from such affected beans will have a musty flavor. It is rarely possible to eliminate all moisture from the beans before shipment and during the voyage and so they may be subject to a loss in weight. Beans which have not been properly dried may turn moldy in transit, and if this surface mold cannot be satisfactorily removed the beans may have to be used for a less valuable product than for which they were originally purchased, i.e. Cocoa Butter. Damage to cocoa in the country of origin, prior to shipment, may not be noticeable from the external appearance of the bags, but should be established on sampling. Country damaged cocoa is usually of gray appearance and internally moldy. On arrival at destination, bags should be stored in a dry place and, in the event of water damage, cocoa should be reconditioned without delay. Cocoa Beans are also liable to infestation by worms, which depreciates their value, the chocolate manufactured from them itself being liable to damage by worms. Loss in color of the shell through external interference may only affect the shell itself, leaving the beans sound. Some beans, if shipped in a damp condition, may have a tendency to lose color and become white. In certain circumstances, where damage by sweat is encountered and the receivers are only prepared to accept the cocoa with considerable allowances, it may be possible to obtain a better result by separating the damaged beans to be sold separately, and delivering the sound portion to the receivers.
COCOA BEANS (RAW COCOA) Cocoa beans are the seeds, contained in a cucumber-like fruit, of the cacao tree, a member of the Sterculiaceae family. The flowers/fruit are borne directly on the trunk (cauliflory) and on thick branches (ramiflory). The yellowish, reddish to brownish fruits (botanically speaking, berries), which are of similar appearance to cucumbers, are divided into five longitudinal compartments, each containing up to 10 seeds (cocoa beans). As the fruits approach ripeness, the partitions break down and the seeds are located around the central funicle in a whitish pulp with a sweet/sour flavor. The cocoa bean consists of the seed coat which encloses the cocoa kernel and almost solely consists of the two folded cotyledons, and the radicle. The cocoa kernel is the principal component for the production of cocoa products. Two subtypes are distinguished: - High-grade, criollo cocoa: the beans are large, roundish and brown in color. They have a delicately bitter, aromatic flavor and are easily processed. - Forastero or common grade cocoa: the beans are smaller than criollo cocoa beans, flattened on the side, have a dark reddish-brown to violet color and a sharper flavor. Forastero cocoa beans account for around 90% of the world's cocoa harvest. The main zones of cultivation of the tropical cacao tree fall within a band 10 degrees north and south of the equator. Central Africa produces approx. 75% of the world's forastero cocoa harvest, while criollo cocoa is primarily shipped from Central America (Venezuela, Ecuador) and from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Due to its high content of fat (cocoa butter), protein and carbohydrates, cocoa has a high nutritional value. Since cocoa contains only small amounts of substances such as theobromine (1 - 2%) and caffeine (0.2%), consuming it has no harmful side-effects. In order to moderate the initially bitter flavor of cocoa and to develop the flavor typical of cocoa, the beans must be subjected to a fermentation process during which the highly bitter tannins present in the beans are oxidized, resulting in the formation of aromatic substances and the development of the typical brown to deep red-brown color of cocoa. As a result of the heat associated with fermentation, the cocoa beans lose their ability to germinate. This process is performed after harvesting by heaping cocoa beans in layers in troughs, concrete pits or fermenting tanks.
COCOA BUTTER (See Fats)
COCONUT (Desiccated) Prone to infestation by weevils. Infestation may be due to a certain type of weevil being inherent in the timber used in the construction of the container, particularly the "Borer" - a red beetle, which channels through the timber, the bore being roughly the size of a pin-head. Weevils are not inherent in the commodity itself, but penetrate from outside and are generally found between the foil and the paper, so that coconut infested in this manner can usually be disposed of after "brushing." Infested coconut can usually be screened and fumigated. The usual methods of fumigation of ships' holds, lighters, warehouses, etc., are directed towards the prevention and control of quarantinable disease, and do not necessarily guarantee the destruction of the pests liable to attack desiccated coconut. This commodity is particularly liable to attack by the copra beetle, which is blue-black in appearance and is usually associated with copra kilns, stores, and copra go-downs, particularly in the case of lower grade copra. The usual source of attack is the place of production or storage of desiccated coconut, particularly when these are situated near copra stores. Another beetle which attacks desiccated coconut is the saw tooth corn beetle which often infests copra, but is usually to be found in flour and grain and, in fact, where foodstuffs generally are available for feeding. It is particularly associated with moldy copra and if desiccated coconut is in the proximity of any of these commodities which have been infested the beetle may attack the coconut. In order to avoid contamination at source there must be strict cleanliness in the factory, store or shop, and the prompt closing and sealing of cases after the desiccated coconut has been packed. After packing, the coconut should be kept clear of any other commodities liable to infestation. Suitable packing may provide immunity from attack, glassine-lined paper bags having been found satisfactory. If packed wet, coconut will develop mold. Coconut is also liable to become rancid with age.
COCONUT FIBER Coconut fiber is obtained from the fibrous husk (mesocarp) of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) from the coconut palm, which belongs to the palm family (Palmae). Coconut fiber has a high lignin content and thus a low cellulose content, as a result of which it is resilient, strong and highly durable. The remarkable lightness of the fibers is due to the cavities arising from the dried out sieve cells. Coconut fiber is the only fruit fiber usable in the textile industry. Coir is obtained by retting for up to 10 months in water followed by sun-drying. Once dry, the fiber is graded into "bristle" fiber (combed, approx. 20 - 40 cm long) and "mattress" fiber (random fibers, approx. 2 - 10 cm long). See also IMDG Code & US CFR
COCONUT FIBER (Coir) (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COCONUT OIL IN BULK - Coconut oil should only be put into tanks which have been carefully cleaned prior to loading, otherwise it will become contaminated. Shipped in bulk it solidifies at 70 degrees F approximately - a result of the specific gravity of the oil itself. Unless particular care is taken by the carrier to re-heat the oil prior to discharge gradually from 85 degrees F (which is the loading temperature) to 120 degrees F (which is the discharging temperature) damage may occur to the oil from two causes: (1) If insufficiently heated the oil will tend to solidify during discharge, causing discharge difficulties and possible loss in the value of the oil. (2) If the oil is heated too rapidly and to a higher degree than that indicated it may scorch, causing discoloration and loss in the saleable value of the oil. When the oil suffers discoloration it may not command the high price paid for the product when used for manufacturing margarine, as it is difficult to bleach discolored oil; consequently it has to be used for soap or some other manufactured commodity. See also BULK OILS and FATS
COCONUT OIL IN STEEL DRUMS - Coconut oil shipped in containers usually goes forward in new or secondhand steel drums. If, on examination, it is found that secondhand gasoline or oil drums have been used, this may explain the increase in the percentage of impurities in the oil due to the drums not being sufficiently clean, and the increase in the moisture content due to the drums not being properly dried before use. It is recognized that this commodity when shipped in containers may solidify when passing into cooler climates. Coconut oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from the copra of the coconut palm. It has the consistency of fat and is therefore also known as coconut butter. It is a white to slightly yellowish oil, with a pleasant odor when fresh but a rancid odor when old. Fresh coconut oil has a pleasant taste. See also BULK OILS and FATS
COCONUTS (See Nuts and Kernels)
CODLIVER OIL (See Bulk Oils and Fats)
COFFEE (Beans) Coffee beans are subject to a natural loss in weight and to seepage due to its sensitivity to moisture. Coffee is usually shipped in loosely woven bags to allow free circulation of air. The texture of these bags is of such a nature that it is easily disarranged in handling, resulting in actual leakage of the contents. Some of the bags are so poorly constructed that every time the bag is handled, the texture is disarranged, particularly at the mouths of the bags, and loss of contents occurs. The swelling of coffee beans may be due to the natural absorption of moisture, which may also result in the bursting of the bags. High temperature and humidity will accelerate such conditions. Green coffee in particular absorbs odors very readily, and dampness of this type of bean will cause softening, resulting in loss of flavor. When stowed in the same hold or in close proximity to unrefined sugar, coffee beans are likely to become odorous and ferment. In an incident where coffee was damaged by contact with linseed oil, and believed to be a total loss, the beans were subjected to washing on five separate occasions, using solvents, rinsing, and then drying by forced hot air. As a result of this treatment it was found after roasting that, while having lost some of its aroma, the coffee was nevertheless fit for drinking, and was found to have depreciated 30%. Coffee, particularly washed coffee which has been mistreated during the period of preparation, may ferment. This fermentation spoils the taste and odor of the bean. Fermented coffee will have a very bad smell recalling the odor of dry skins, particularly "goat skins." In fact, in the trade, fermented coffees are sometimes called "Hidey" coffee. When called to survey such coffees, surveyors should try to determine whether it is a fermented coffee or a coffee that has been contaminated by stowage in the same compartment as a cargo of skins. The smell is identical and difficult to differentiate Direct Water Damage - Beans which have been contaminated by water deteriorate to a great extent and may turn black and are often coated with a form of mildew. In cases of very bad damage, the black beans are inclined to stick together in little groups. Beans so damaged take on a musty odor which remains with them even after the roasting and grinding processes. With seawater damage, the sacking may be stained red. In the case of recently damaged coffee it should be immediately spread and dried. If these measures are taken promptly, the coffee may be saved and the depreciation of its quality minimized. Indirect Water Damage - This is brought about by the coffee absorbing moisture from the air. In this case the beans may lose color, swell and take on a musty smell, but it is not likely that they will turn black as in the case of damage by direct water contact. Certain coffees such as Iquitos from Peru are known to be shipped in this condition, but may not necessarily be classified as damaged. Country Damage - A term commonly given to direct water damage which occurs in the country of origin prior to the bagging of the beans. When surveying consignments of coffee which have been damaged by water, the only means of stating whether it is country damaged as against damage sustained on the voyage is by the position of the black beans in the bags. With country damage the damaged beans will be dispersed in patches throughout the bags (as when damage occurs prior to bagging) but damage can also show on the skin of the bag (as when damage occurs after bagging but prior to shipment). Those beans which have been damaged during a journey will generally show in greater volume on the skin of the bag. This is, however, by no means certain as so many coffees are packed in such a manner as to leave plenty of room for movement of the contents during transit. By slitting the bags from top to bottom the position of damaged beans should be readily evident. When coffee is improperly prepared or insufficiently dried, damage frequently shows itself by the beans in the center of the bags being soft, swollen and mildewed and this is the most difficult form of damage to deal with, as there is seldom any sign externally of damage having occurred.
COFFEE (Beans) Odors - Beans which have been stowed in the same compartment as goods which give off strong odors may retain the smell. Once the coffee has been contaminated by odorous goods the smell may remain throughout processing. Loss of Color and Weight - Often beans lose their color without external interference, but this is in no way to be considered as damage. It is usual in the trade for contracts of sale to bear a clause to the effect that color cannot be guaranteed. Beans have a natural loss in weight. It is therefore necessary to note the delivered weights of a representative number of sound bags so that a comparison between the average delivered weight of a sound bag and one with apparent shortage may be made to determine any loss by pilferage or leakage.
COFFEE (Beans) INDONESIAN NATURAL UNWASHED COFFEE - There may be white or dark brown beans mixed in this coffee, a normal characteristic of the commodity. Another characteristic of this coffee is a leguminous and earthy smell which is due to the climate, the conditions of the soil and humidity in the atmosphere. This strange smell is similar to the musty odor of water damaged coffee, but in the case of Indonesian Natural Unwashed Coffee this odor is not, of itself, evidence of water damage.
COFFEE (Beans) MOKA, HARRAR and GIMMA COFFEE - When fardes packing is used, the contents are liable to be lost through leakage due to the inadequacy of the containers.
COFFEE (Beans) UGANDA (ROBUSTA) COFFEE - Care should be exercised in arriving at the extent of shortage, as bags from this source are not always uniform in weight. Incomplete weights in any consignment is made up by inclusion of smaller bags containing varying weights. These latter bags are commonly referred to as "pockets" and may contain any quantity between a few kilos and full measure.
COFFEE (Beans) WEST AFRICAN COFFEE - Shipments from some ports may be liable to suffer water damage due to the consignments first being loaded into open boats running between the coast and the open roads.
COFFEE (Beans) GREEN COFFEE BEANS - Coffee shrubs (Coffea arabica), which belong to the madder (Rubiaceae) family, are shrubs with evergreen, leathery leaves, white flowers and spherical, reddish purple stone fruits, known as coffee cherries. Originally native to East Africa, coffee was cultivated for the first time in Brazil in 1740. The coffee shrub thrives in a tropical climate in shady locations with high rainfall in both mountainous areas (Coffea arabica, see below) and lowlying areas (Coffea liberica, Coffea robusta). Since the coffee shrub blossoms throughout the year, each shrub carries fruits at all the various stages of development. Green coffee beans are the seeds of the coffee shrub, which are disengaged completely from the husk and to a considerable extent from the seed coat (silver skin). In general, each coffee cherry contains two coffee beans, which lie with their flat sides together and exhibit longitudinal furrows in the middle of these sides. Coffee beans contain the alkaloid caffeine (0.8 - 2.5%), which has a stimulating effect on the human nervous system, for which reason coffee is counted as a semiluxury item. There are three varieties of coffee shrub which are of economic significance: 1. Coffea arabica, the Arabian shrub. Plantations are generally at heights of over 1000 m, which make it a "highland coffee". The average length of coffee beans of this variety is approx. 9 mm and their color is greenish to blue-green. The coffee beans of this variety are more expensive, the higher the plantations, as the fruits ripen more slowly at greater heights, becoming horny and hard and containing only little moisture. They consequently have a strong, full flavor. They have a caffeine content of approx. 1.2%. This variety accounts for 75 - 80% of the world's coffee harvest. 2. Coffea robusta, the robusta coffee shrub. This is a "lowland" coffee, as its plantations are as a rule below 1000 m. The beans of this coffee variety are small, roundish and generally brownish to yellowy green. The coffee cherries ripen more quickly and their beans have a higher water content than highland coffee and generally have a less powerful flavor. They have a caffeine content of approx. 2.3%. 3. Coffea liberica, the Liberian coffee shrub. A lowland coffee, whose beans, though larger than those of Coffea arabica, are less highly regarded because of their sharp flavor.
COIR FIBER (Coir Mats, Coir Yarn) (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COKE Will absorb moisture up to approximately 20% its weight, and similarly can lose the same amount of weight.
COLLUPULIN (in Tins) (See Canned Goods)
COMBED TOP Combed top (combed wool) is washed and combed long-fiber raw wool which is used as a starting material for worsted spinning mills. Combed top is a flat sliver of wool of an average length of 6 cm which is preferably converted into worsted yarn (in contrast to the lofty carded wool, which is converted into carded yarn). Combed top is supplied in grades classed by fineness, length and strength. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
CONDENSED MILK (See Milk, also Canned Goods)
CONFECTIONERY Sugar boiling must always be kept in airtight containers and temperature fluctuations avoided; otherwise they become a sticky mess. Soft fondants are inclined to sweat. When this sweat is in the form of droplets on the fondants it dissolves the sugar and given them a "worm-eaten" appearance. Two points should be noted in carrying out surveys where sugar or sugar products are concerned. A dilute sugar solution may become mildewed and sugar boiling may crystallize on storage, especially if exposed to damp conditions. Where a survey is carried out, care should be taken to establish whether the degree of damage is greater in the center of the case, or at the sides, as this will give an indication of the cause, whether inherent vice or a transit condition. Confectionery is generally exported to the Tropics wrapped or unwrapped, and packed in glass or metal containers and then packed into cardboard cartons. It has been noted that this form of packing is not always suitable, and claims may be expected for broken glass containers and heavy denting of metal containers, Glass containers when broken, and metal containers when so heavily dented that they are no longer airtight, expose their contents to the tropical atmosphere, and the confectionery, whether wrapped or unwrapped, soon becomes soft and sticky. When confectionery is in this condition, the salvage value is likely to be small. See also CHOCOLATE. ORANGE and LEMON SLICES, Etc - Subject to internal sweating due to drying out of the initial moisture in the product. This may result in the contents of the cases being found more or less sticky and moist, the sugar coating being partly dissolved instead of being in a dry and crystallized condition. In such cases the interleaving paper separating the slices in the boxes shows marks where it has been in contact with the confectionery. In some cases this condition may be found more pronounced in the bottom boxes of each carton, due to the additional pressure on these boxes.
COPPER CATHODES Electrolyte copper cathodes are usually bought upon a weight basis. It is quite common for these cathodes to have surface deformities arising out of the process of manufacture, in the nature of small "pimples or warts," and since the cathodes are normally shipped unpacked, often bound together with metal bands, handling in the course of transit will result in the surface irregularities being broken down and the cathodes delivered with a smooth surface. This, on occasion, may well result in quite a serious difference between the shipped and delivered weights. Further, the cathodes are manufactured with "ears" for the purpose of hanging and frequently these "ears" become knocked off during transit, resulting in a further loss of weight.
COPPER PRODUCTS These include sheet, strip, tube, wire, wrought shapes and castings. When the product is thin and of a high surface finish, scratches, gouging, tears, etc., may ruin the product to the extent of the damaged area. Seawater and fresh water produce stains and seawater may give rise to some corrosion. So long as the stains are superficial, the product can be used. If rough and pitted, the material may be rejected. Slight corrosion by general atmospheric conditions may also occur, forming verdigris. Manufacturing difficulties such as scabbiness, roughness or folds ("pinches"), can be readily identified, as these cannot be produced by rough handing or by corrosion in transit. Surface defects, apart from corrosion pits, scratches and dents, can usually be attributed to faulty manufacture. Scabbiness is caused by the metal splashing when it is poured into the mold and cooling in droplets on the side. An oxide film is formed around these droplets which prevents them mixing with the rest of the metal in the ingot. Roughness is caused by the ingot sticking to the mold, causing a tearing of the surface on removal. Folds ("pinches") are caused in casting with too low a pouring rate, allowing a series of oxide films to be formed. All three defects originate in a faulty ingot and the faults remain because of the inability of oxidized surfaces to weld together. Superficial staining or slight corrosion may be removed by the use of mild abrasives or ammonia solution, or both, and provided the product is not made to accurate dimensions, scratches, etc., may be polished out with an abrasive. Ammonia solutions, with or without mild abrasives, may be used for cleaning by wiping provided the operation is carefully controlled and the surface is washed thoroughly afterwards.
COPPER SULPHATE (Blue stone) Effloresces slowly on exposure to air. The heaviness of the cargo sometimes causes tears in the bags, with consequent leakage. When in contact with any volume of water in ship's hold, to the extent that it dissolves, will have a great corrosive effect on other cargo, especially steel, steel drums, etc. Copper sulphate should be kept well away from other cargo. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COPPERAS (See Vitriol Green)
COPRA Copra is usually imported into industrial countries to extract oil. It may appear seriously damaged and covered with mildew (copra being liable to produce mold in damp conditions), and blackened and smelly, but usually the oil extracted from such affected copra is not at all damaged. It does not normally show any increase in acidity. A chemical test of the oil should disclose whether there is damage and to what extent. The damage may be confined to the cake or to a slight allowance on the oil due to the increase of acidity, if any. There is a risk of copra being damaged by even the smallest admixture of sulphur, and it should not, therefore, be loaded with or immediately following a cargo of crude or fine sulphur. If not properly dry may suffer loss in weight. Is subject to heating and throws off moisture. Can be a dangerous cargo, especially in rainy season if the bags are wet prior to shipment. Damage may result from stowage near to boilers, insufficient dunnage and matting to prevent contact with steelwork, and lack of ventilation, humidity causing the copra to take on a musty odor. If properly dry and packed in new or good second hand bags, may show an overweight when stowed with damp, non-hazardous goods. If a heavy green mold is evident, accompanied by a heavy loss in weight, then it may in most cases be assumed that the copra was shipped in an unduly wet condition. If the green mold is present without major loss in weight then it is possible that the copra has been in contact with water. This is not, however, a certain indication, as if dry copra has been stored for a long time prior to shipment then the same condition may arise.
CORIANDER (See Spices)
CORIANDER SEEDS (See Seeds)
CORK Cork is subject to a natural loss in weight, but is also very susceptible to dampness, especially when shipped on deck, and there may be an increase in weight from moisture absorption. If cork composition sheets and other cork derivatives such as cork discs, etc., are damaged by seawater, continuous washing is recommended until the salt is completely eradicated, after which in some cases the cork may be utilized for its original purpose. Sometimes the add cost of handling, drying, rebagging, etc., of the washed products, coupled with the possibility that they could not be disposed of at their full value, may render their disposal as raw material for grinding purposes by composition cork manufacturers a more economical solution. Usually the high quality of cork from which such derivatives are produced means a comparatively high scrap value, although this would probably be inferior to the value of the sound article. Cork boards and derivatives stored in exceptionally cold temperatures may become exceptionally brittle, and will readily break when being handled. The commodity should therefore be handled with care after having been subjected to low temperatures, but as soon as the commodity regains a normal temperature it will again be fit for ordinary handling. Cork sheets suffering damage due to sweat during transit may be found to have both surfaces (face and back) extensively stained and discolored and to be musty and mildewed, either in the center or around the edges.
CORK SHAVINGS When shipped in bales, may be subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying. Loss may also result from chafing and seepage from the containers.
CORRUGATED BOARD Corrugated board consists of one or more plies of fluted paper which is glued onto paper or cardboard.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS GENERAL - there are, broadly speaking, two main factors which are considered in connection with the purchasing of cotton: (a) Grade (b) Staple Grade - a loose description is "color" or "cleanliness." Cotton which has been badly ginned will contain more "trash" which, from the cotton spinners' point of view, means higher wastage. "Trash" consists of dirt, leaf, cut seed, stain, etc. "Stain" is caused by climatic conditions when growing. Lightning, for instance, will cause a yellow stain on the mature bolls. Staple is length and strength of fibers. Evenness of fiber length is also an important consideration. Cotton is shipped in full pressed bales. It is pressed to a considerable density, which does not harm the cotton. Having regard to the main characteristics mentioned, i.e. Grade and Staple and nature of packing - fully pressed bales - it can be said that there are only two chief causes of partial loss: (a) Fire (b) Water In the case of fire arising from adjacent cargo, it will take a long time for a pressed bale really to burn, but in the case of spontaneous combustion bales will burst into flames and are likely to be a total loss. Bales affected by an adjacent fire may have only superficial damage, say, cotton on the outside of the bales charred to a depth of 1/2 in. or so. It is a simple matter to pick off the damaged cotton and grant allowances on the weight picked off, as the remainder of the cotton in the bale will be quite sound and no allowance for this is warranted. The same applies to superficial water damage. While in no way affecting "Grade, "water will rot the fibers, but a bale can stand out in monsoon rain for days and the wet will not penetrate to more than a depth of 1/2 in. Where bales are damaged by fire and water, or water alone, it is advisable to contact a reputable firm with a cotton press, have all the bales opened up and damaged cotton removed and sound cotton repressed. Loss would be on basis of value of damaged cotton, plus picking and re-pressing charges. It is possible that badly damaged cotton might realize a small salvage value if sold as manure. If cotton had been pressed when damp it is quite possible that damage could occur notwithstanding that spontaneous combustion had not actually taken place; in other words, though there has been no fire, damage might have been done to the fibers by the heat engendered. Fumigation should not ordinarily be detrimental to cotton. Cotton is subject to loss or gain in weight. Cotton bales vary in size, weight and density according to the conditions in the country of origin. Bales are usually strapped by steel bands or wire and covered by Hessian cloth. As bales are generally pressed at the ginneries, "up country" cotton is particularly susceptible to "country damage." After pressing, the bales may be stored in warehouse or on plinths in the open protected by tarpaulins until ready for carriage to port by rail or road. The Hessian should keep the bales clean under normal conditions, but abnormal rain and mud can penetrate and damage cotton underneath the covers or the covers may be cut or torn. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS Country Damage may be caused by rain, flood, mud, sand, or a combination of any of these causes. Insects, particularly ants, can also cause damage. The surveyor at destination should be able to differentiate between country damage (which will, by its nature, be external in origin and penetrating inwards, depending upon the extent of the damage and density of the bales), and damage caused by "damp packed," i.e. baling while the cotton is still damp, which damage will be fairly evenly spread throughout the bale. Frequently some bales from a shipment burst in transit, but this does not entail any damage to the cotton, and since it is so densely pressed the worst that can happen is a small loss from shortage which can be ascertained by weighing. Superficial damage is normally assessed as a "picking claim," that is the surveyor estimates the weight of the damaged cotton and, taking into account the damaged value of the fiber, agrees an allowance "in lieu of picking." The alternative of brushing off the mud, etc., and picking of the damaged cotton and then mending the Hessian covering, is expensive compared with the extent of the damage and should be avoided when possible. Sometimes an allowance "in lieu of picking" is assessed in cash instead of weight but assessment by weight is preferable as it avoids the necessity of agreeing sound values and simplifies the subsequent adjustment. Heating and Spontaneous Combustion - Cotton is liable to heat damage due to microbiological action and is also liable to spontaneous ignition due to exhalation of minute quantities of methane (marsh gas) when packed wet. The methane is ignited either by spark due to bursting bands contacting other ferrous metals or coming into contact with chlorine. Cotton, being a cellulose substance, is capable of generating a sufficient supply of oxygen to maintain combustion in the interior of a press-packed bale. In countries where the saw gin is used and press boxes are filled through a pneumatic conveyor system, sparks due to friction may find their way into the interior of a bale and combustion continues for an indefinite time. As cotton is liable to spontaneous combustion if in contact with oil, it should not be stowed in the same compartment as cargo of an oily nature, such as groundnuts or any similar commodity which may contain vegetable, animal or other oils, or in the same stowage as other goods which, because of possible leakage or seepage, might bring oil into contact with cotton. In cases where cotton has been damaged by fire, the surveyor should endeavor to determine the nature of the stowage and the cargo in the same space and provide information of this in the survey report.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS Water and Mold Damage - Cotton, particularly in the raw state, mildews rapidly under damp conditions without necessarily being the subject of any fortuity such as wetting by fresh water, seawater, etc. The infection causing mildew, and possibly subsequent decay, may take place from the cotton field onwards, and it only requires conditions of sufficient moisture for this to develop. The formation of mildew is also favored by warm as well as moist conditions. Such damage, in cotton fibers, may result from the process of wetting before shipment. The chief result of damage by mold is the lowering of the grade because of stains and discoloration, but a chemical action is set up which causes decay in course of time. Heating will also result in decay. Water, wither rain water, seawater or sweat, penetrates slowly owing to the density of the bale and causes staining and rotting of the fiber. Such damaged fiber, however, is not worthless, but can be used when mixed in small quantities with undamaged fiber during spinning. Water damaged cotton is not subject to spontaneous combustion, but contact with oil can be dangerous. The oil is absorbed and in the close confines of the vessels' hold the subsequent evaporation might easily produce an explosive mixture of air and oil vapor with a low flash point. The actual wetting of cotton fiber has no harmful effect, but unless dealt with promptly the initial wetting may result in mold, damage by staining, or, if treatment is unduly delayed, will cause decay. The extent and rapidity with which deterioration of the cotton occurs varies according to the grade and density of the cotton and according to the conditions and extent of the wetting. The wetting of cotton will set up heat some days after the wetting has occurred or, if the bales are submerged, some days after being taken from the water. At temperatures below freezing there is little or no danger of decay, as the process is arrested at low temperatures. In some cases where delay in dealing with the cotton could not be avoided it has been put into cold storage to prevent the development of decay. If bales have been thoroughly wetted, the cutting of the bands to release the pressure should be considered, as heating will increase in compressed cotton whereas the opening of the bales will arrest the process of deterioration. Where wetting has not penetrated very deeply into the bales they can be left in the open under drying conditions, which should be sufficient to restore them, but if they are thoroughly wetted then the bales should be opened up and dried as soon as possible. Artificial drying may sometimes be detrimental to the final appearance of the cotton as it may become spotted or yellow stained. The natural process of drying, if available, is to be preferred, the main question in the case of wet-damaged cotton being to deal with it as promptly as possible. Cotton consists of the unicellular seed-hairs of the bolls of the cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum), which belong to the "plant hair" category. The cotton plant itself belongs to the mallow (Malvaceae) family. The fruits of the cotton plant burst when ripe, revealing a fist-sized tuft of cotton consisting of fibers up to 50 mm in length. Once picked, the cotton is dried in the sun and ginned (separation of seeds from fibers). The plant fibers have a pronounced three-walled structure. The outer wax layer protects the primary wall. The most important element is the secondary wall, which consists predominantly of cellulose. The tertiary wall surrounds the lumen, which, in all cellulose materials of plant origin, is very well formed and filled with air. The chemical composition of cotton is as follows: - cellulose 91.00% - water 7.85% - protoplasm, pectins 0.55% - waxes, fatty substances 0.40% - mineral salts 0.20%
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON PIECE GOODS (White and Khaki Drills, etc.) - Care should be exercised in attributing the cause of water staining to contact with seawater, as an analysis of undamaged material may produce the same result, for the reason that salt is sometimes used in the dressing and/or filling used to bring the cloth up to a specified weight. However, testing of samples by a competent chemist should be able to differentiate between presence of salt and sea water exposure, which will leave trace elements.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTONS (BALED) - Bales are sometimes lined with an inferior waterproof paper in which bitumen of a very low melting point has been used between the two layers of paper. From l40 degrees -150 degrees F, the bitumen is freed and this, combined with pressure, causes soiling of the goods. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON WASTE - clean cotton waste can be satisfactorily shipped providing the moisture content in below 13 percent. If there is an excess of moisture, the pressure of the press-packing will cause the waste to degenerate rapidly from the center of the tale die to heat, the damaged waste having the appearance of discolored wood pulp. Will withstand contact with water if dried out quickly before mildew ensues. Will heat if kept damp or in contact with oils. Should be stowed in a dry, well-ventilated space away from heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. Oily waste is dangerous and liable to catch fire if the oil content exceeds 5%. Contact with water may also render the waste liable to spontaneous combustion. Cotton Waste from Russia - this material is from willowed picker waste, a byproduct of the opening room and the card room of textile mills. When imported it is run through garnet machines and mixed with cotton linters to hold it together. The mixture is in turn made into cheap mattress battings. If these goods are moist the wet and willowed picker will cake, have a moldy odor, and become unfit for use in mattresses.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON YARN - if wetted yarn is immediately reconditioned, the damage should be confined to the reconditioning expenditure. Dyed yarn is more susceptible to damage.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS ABSORBENT COTTON - Absorbent cotton is obtained from degreased and bleached short, very loose, soft cotton fibers or viscose staple fiber. The fibrous material is in part broken down to the individual fibers, which naturally adhere together. Absorbent cotton for medical dressings consists of nonwoven fleeces of fine, roughly parallel, knot-free cotton fibers, up to 3 cm in length, made from spinning mill waste (comber waste). It is sterile and is therefore suitable for use in dressings. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS There are several different methods of packing, and from observation these would appear to have a direct bearing on the cause of the mildew. It is only the interior packing which varies, all bales being finally Hessian-wrapped and secured by four or five steel bands around the top and bottom and flats of the bales and two bands around the ends and sides. The interior packing may be one of the following: (a) Plain brown paper covering the cloth, and then covered with one or two layers of bitumen-lined paper, and the Hessian cover placed over all. (b) Plain brown paper covering the cloth plaited cane matting over the tops and bottoms and part way down the sides, and ends, one or two layers of bitumen-lined paper over the matting, and a final Hessian cover. (c) The cloth covered at tops and bottoms with a sheet of polythene material which extends part way down the sides and ends and a Hessian wrapper over all. Surveyors' examinations have revealed that in most of those instances where the bales are externally unstained and brown paper and bitumen-lined paper only are used as interior protection, the cloth is in good order. Where cane matting is employed, or the cloth is covered with a polythene wrapper, mildew has developed and it is noticeable that where the matting or polythene does not cover 7the cloth there is no mildew. It would appear that shippers, in attempting to prevent moisture penetrating to the cloth may have inadvertently produced the very conditions they have set out to avoid, because while the packing has successfully excluded external moisture it has at the same time prevented the escape of any internal moisture which may have been in the pieces at the time of packing. Very little moisture need be present to set up a mildew growth on gray cloth, given suitable conditions, and it is possible that the subjection of pieces to a highly humid atmosphere prior to packing is alone sufficient when the appropriate conditions are present to produce an excess of moisture which cannot escape. Alternatively, a somewhat similar result can be obtained through the cloth being warm when packed, and, when the bales are subjected to a lower temperature, light condensation takes place on the moisture proof wrapping, resulting in mildew.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON LINTERS - Inferior quality cotton fibers obtained by the cleaning of the seeds. Handle as cotton. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON GOODS - Mildew and decay in cloth may be avoided by the use of suitable antiseptics. A starch finish may support traces of mold growth, producing organic acids which lead to spotting of the fabric. This spotting should not be confused with damage due to exterior causes. If cotton cloth was to be subjected to conditions of high humidity or is still warm at the time of packing, these conditions are conducive to and may result in the formation of mold. Also, if cloth is wrapped in moisture-proof wrappers and unsuitable antiseptics have been used or the cloth has been packed warm or under conditions of high humidity, mold growth immediately below the wrappers may develop to some considerable extent during course of transit. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON BATTING - Sheets of cotton obtained by combing of the cotton. Liable to spontaneous combustion. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON FABRICS - in all cases of damage by seawater, immediate cleaning is essential. If proper facilities are not immediately available the material should be thoroughly washed in fresh cold water. See also COTTON PIECE GOODS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS GRAY CLOTH - Gray cloth is sometimes delivered at destination suffering from mold damage. From an investigation into this. The following emerges: (a) Bales which are externally wet, generally from exposure of the packages to rain prior to shipment: In these instances the evidence should be clear, the Hessian wrappers are stained and the steel bands surrounding the bales rusty in the vicinity of the stains. Should the moisture be sufficient to penetrate the packing, the cloth in the vicinity of the wetting becomes brown-stained and mildew forms around the stains. The remaining pieces in the bales are usually in good order. (b) Packages externally in normal condition: The Hessian wrappers in these instances may be affected by quay dirt or dust picked up during handling operations, but without evidence of external wetting, and the steel bands free of rust. On opening, it may be found that the top and bottom pieces are uniformly mildewed on the outer surface, the mildew penetrating the pieces to varying degrees, sometimes throughout. The adjoining pieces are mildewed on their edges or folds, but in some cases the mildew is present only on the external surfaces of the pieces and does not emanate from the interiors. (c) Bales which are stained in places, but where the external moisture has not penetrated the interior packing, yet the top and bottom pieces are heavily mildewed and the intervening pieces are affected on the edges or folds, precisely similar to the contents of bales which are not externally stained.
COTTON AND COTTON GOODS COTTON DUCK CLOTH (INDIAN) - Investigation into the causes of discoloration of a shipment of Indian duck cloth revealed that the discoloration was not due to mold growth. Exposure to ultra violet light did not reveal the presence of mineral oils Qualitative tests indicated that the yellowish discolorations observed were due to natural oils and waxes which had not been removed in that part of the bleaching process of the cotton fabric known as the lye treatment. Quantitative tests revealed that the ether-soluble materials contained in the fabric amounted to over 1%. This suggests that a small amount of other naturally occurring matter, apart from waxes, extracted in the ether, since the maximum content of oils and waxes in cotton is approximately 1%. After ether extraction, a few yellow spots still remained on the fabric. These were probably calcium and/or magnesium soaps. When cotton fabric has undergone efficient lye treatment the ether extract from the material should not exceed 0.01%. The lye boiling is the most important operation in the bleaching process. Briefly it consists of boiling the goods with a dilute solution of alkali in order to remove such impurities as oils, waxes, mineral oils, proteins, etc. Owing to incomplete lye boiling, yellowish discolorations occur because of unremoved oils and waxes. Unremoved wax may not be apparent directly after the bleaching process, but when the goods are stored; it works its way to the surface, giving the goods a yellow tint. The light gray and yellow discoloration observed in the cloth under test was possibly due to incomplete bleaching of the fabric owing to the presence of unremoved waxes. A treatment somewhat similar to that carried out in the lye boiling was performed on the sample in the laboratory. An extremely high loss in weight occurred. Although a loss was due to naturally occurring impurities, the greater part of the loss was probably due to substances used in the bleaching process and unremoved from the duck. From the above findings the analyst was of the opinion that the discoloration was primarily due to incomplete removal of oils and waxes in the lye boiling. See also FABRICS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTONSEED (See Oilseeds, and also remarks under Seeds)
COTTONSEED CAKE Bulk shipments in cake form are subject to loss of weight during shipment and discharge owing to the cake breaking and powdering. Serious damage to cargo can be caused by dampness or sweating of the ship's holds, due to improper ventilation. Moisture so arising causes the cake to mold, which formation spreads rapidly. This condition can usually be detected by the strong, sour odor. Bags are very often stained by their own contents. Also liable to spontaneous combustion if wetted. Also subject to a natural loss in weight. See also IMDG Code.
COTTONSEED MEAL Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COTTONSEED OIL This class of oil is usually shipped in bulk. It is often necessary for heating coils to be fitted as the oil solidifies at between 50 degrees F and 34 degrees F but should the temperature approach boiling point, the oil may deteriorate. Cottonseed oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from cottonseeds. As a crude oil, it is dark and cloudy brown. When refined, it is yellowish, high-grade edible oil. Cottonseed oil exhibits only a slight tendency to evaporate. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
COTTONSEED RESIDUE Contains about 5% oil and is used as cattle feed. Is liable to heat, and if badly stowed may be subject to spontaneous combustion. Absorbs moisture, having a tendency to increase in weight. Liable to damage by tainting if stowed near odorous cargoes such as skins, hides, etc. Moist cargoes and rain may cause moldiness. Subject to a natural loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
COUCHE (See Transparent Wrapping Paper)
COWPEAS If not properly dried may be subject to a natural loss in weight.
CRAYFISH (See Fish)
CRUDE OILS (Mineral) With regard to the minimizing of damage, the most important factor is to keep the damaged oil separate from the sound. In most cases, only certain ship's tanks are affected if it is a question of contamination. When there is water in the cargo, this is generally at the bottom of the ship's tanks. If possible, damaged cargo should be pumped to separate shore tanks where it can be treated, water allowed to settle out, or at least prevented from contaminating the whole of the cargo. A frequent cause of incorrect claims is an attempt to sample mixtures of oils and free water. This is a very difficult procedure and the best method is to draw off all free water before attempting to sample, which should be done after the water has had time to settle out, otherwise a false result is almost bound to follow. Alternatively, gaugers can establish the lever where water resides, by use of sensors or color cut paste. At most discharge ports suitable arrangements can be made by allocating small shore tanks or even tank barges for the damaged portion. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
CUMARU CAKE Used in the manufacture of flavoring essences and perfumery. Subject to a natural loss or gain in weight.
CURACAO ALOES (See Aloes)
CURIO GOODS Made of rosewood, sometimes ivory inlaid; the rosewood is apt to crack due to normal changes of temperature in transit.
CUT LUMBER Cut lumber is the wood trade's name for lumber cut longitudinally, i.e. with its grain.
CUTCH (See Catechu)
CUTTLEFISH (See Fish)
DAMMAR A resin obtained from the Indian pine, also from the Far East and New Zealand. Liable to heat and leak through pressure and lack of ventilation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
DATES (See Fruits, Dried)
DETERGENTS Frequently packed in iron drums. If the containers are damaged during transit the contents, through exposure, may be found contaminated, slightly discolored, freely deliquescing and converted into a soft pasty mass, intermixed with small lumps, due to absorption of moisture, etc., from the atmosphere. In such a state, the detergent has little salvage value.
DEXTRINE An extraction from starch. Humidity may cause deterioration.
DIMETHYL PHTHALATE Colorless, only liquid after being damaged by water and by contamination with foreign matter can be reconditioned by experts. Hazard: irritant to eyes on mucous membranes. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
DIVI-DIVI An extract obtained from the pods of the divi-divi tree used in the tanning and dyeing industries. Subject to a natural loss in weight. The tanning material, i.e. the tannin, is located in the tissue lying just below the epidermis of the pods, the seeds being free of it. The tannin content is said to be higher when the pods are just mature. The pods after collection should be split open longitudinally, the seed removed and the husk dried rapidly in the sun. Slow drying frequently allows fermentation to commence, with the production of red coloring matter which diminishes the value of the material. The best pods are thick and fleshy and of a pale color. Those which are dark, with black spots and blotches, have probably been gathered in a damp state or have been subsequently exposed to moisture, which greatly reduces the value. Divi-Divi is used in the manufacture of leather, but not alone, as the leather thus produced is strongly affected by atmospheric conditions, being soft and spongy in damp weather and lacking pliability in periods of drought. In view of this, Divi-Divi is usually blended with other tanning materials.
DRIED BEANS (See Beans, Dried). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
DRIED BLOOD Product analyzing between 8% and 10% moisture. Absorbs moisture and is liable to heat. Excessive moisture tends to make this product cake and deteriorate in quality. Is subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Used as a fertilizer. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
DRIED FISH (See Fish)
DRIED FRUIT (See Fruits, Dried)
DRIED MILK (See Milk)
DRIED TRIPE (See Tripe, Dried)
DROSS (See Scoria)
DRY GINGER (See Roots)
DUCK CLOTH See Cottons
DYESTUFFS Mostly packed in steel drums, wooden casks or barrels with inner paper bags. Liable to leakage from the containers. Some dye stuffs deteriorate if in contact with air. Dyestuffs fall into many different chemical classifications, but they can be split primarily into products soluble, and insoluble in water. In the case of soluble dyestuffs, any wetting may cause an actual loss of dyestuff by leaching the material out of the package. The remaining color may or may not have undergone some chemical deterioration with a permanent loss in value, or it may merely have changed physically and may be capable of reconstitution by drying and grinding, with comparatively small loss in value. Dry pigments, if allowed to become damp or wet may suffer much greater loss in value than dyestuffs; they would certainly require to be retreated by a manufacturer. Neither insoluble dyestuffs nor pigments in the form of aqueous pastes should be allowed to dry out, even partially, and if for any reason drying has taken place they require retreatment by a manufacturer, and there may be considerable loss. If the pastes are allowed to become frozen, retreatment may again be necessary and, once again, the loss may be considerable, although in both cases it is sometimes possible to recover the greater part of the value of the material at the expense of retreatment costs and some physical loss. Contamination of any sort may result in loss in value and will probably necessitate retreatment. Certain dyestuffs and pigments decompose when heated. In general no adverse effect is likely below 120/140 degrees F. A number of products melt under the influence of heat, with or without decomposition; if there is no decomposition the material can probably be retreated, e.g. by grinding by the manufacturer without serious loss. If even partial decomposition has taken place, the products may be a total loss. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
DYEWOOD EXTRACT Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out.
EARTHENWARE Moisture, wetting and/or damp packing may be responsible for hair- line cracks in the glaze. "Crazing," a series of minute cracks in the glaze which occurs in manufacture, should not be treated as transit damage. A crack sometimes is due to a manufacturing defect caused during the firing or drying process and should be readily distinguishable by the gap in the enameling. Vitreous or enameled surfaces are liable to breakage and chipping, much of which can be avoided by the liberal use of felt or corrugated cardboard uniformly distributed over the surfaces and where in contact with case or crate. Tinted earthenware is particularly subject to water damage by reason of the decorative portion sometimes being easily rubbed off. See also ENANELWARE.
EDIBLE OILS When contaminated by other oils can only be clarified at great expense and this is usually not economically feasible. A reasonable allowance is in the best interests of all concerned. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
EGG ALBUMEN (See Albumen, Egg)
EGG PULP Exported in tins hard frozen; faulty sealing of the tins or rough handling of the package may cause loss. See also CANNED GOODS.
EGG YOLK Hygroscopic and subject to a natural loss in weight. The extent of loss in weight is largely dependent upon the moisture content of the egg yolk at the time of packing. If the moisture content is unusually high, a considerable volume may be lost through natural evaporation through the staves of the barrels in which it is packed. On the contrary, if the moisture content is low, the yolk may absorb moisture from the staves of the barrel and so cause shrinkage of the staves which may result in leakage.
EGGS CHILLED - the temporary opening of cases of chilled eggs causing exposure, if not carried out in a refrigerated compartment, will cause mold growths on the shells, due to condensation, which may quickly develop.
EGGS FRESH - Fresh eggs are easily affected by inadequate temperatures, storage and humidity, etc. "Black spots" or "Black Mold" are fungi that develop on account of humidity. Such black spots may be traced back to very rainy and damp weather during the season of gathering the eggs, storage in the packing centers prior to export, etc. Eggs are liable to damage by tainting if stowed in the vicinity of odorous goods. Egg-shells are subject to bacterial contamination, and, if the protective membrane is soiled or removed by rough handling, bacterial penetration to the yolk may result, especially under damp conditions. The washing of eggs accelerates the bacterial penetration. Mold readily develops in a humid atmosphere.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Mold growth may affect delicate instruments in several ways, apart from mere disfigurement of fabric, leather, etc. Corrosion of metal may be encouraged by organic acids formed by mold fungi. Mold growth may cause failure of electrical instruments by destruction of insulating materials. Even glass can be affected, mold growth on polished lenses leading to permanent etching of the surface. Proper packaging and protection of sensitive equipment, as well as labeling and handling instructions, are essential to minimize damages from rough handling and condensation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
EMERY An impure form of corundum which, on account of its hardness, is used for grinding, cutting and polishing. Claims have arisen from contamination with oil, which interfered with grinding. The oil can be removed by washing with caustic soda.
EMERY STONE When in bulk and impregnated with seawater may produce a lethal gas, if not provided with sufficient ventilation.
ENAMELWARE Care is necessary in the use of the expression "flaking or chipping" as the cause of damage. In the enameling industry, "flaking" is recognized as being due to some peculiarity in the enamel or in the metal to which the enamel is applied, by which small portions of the enamel do not adhere to the metal, so that, on cooling, they flake off. Loss of value, if arising out of such a cause, would not ordinarily be recoverable under the terms of the insurance cover, but at the same time such damage, being usually discovered before such goods are packed, is not normally found at destination, although this is always, of course, possible. Care should therefore be exercised in the examination of the article to determine whether cause of damage be due to "flaking" (faulty manufacture) or "chipping" due to shock, rough handling, or other cause.
ENAMELWARE CAST-IRON ENAMELLED PORCELAIN BATHS - Nested in crates with corrugated or mottled cardboard manufactured by the sulphite process between. If exposed to moisture the sulphite is released and has a bleaching effect on the color pigment in the porcelain leaving a pattern which cannot be eradicated. The pattern disappears when the bath is wet and reappears as it dries. Scratching and chipping is sometimes found to be greater when each unit is individually cased. On occasion, improvement in the outturn condition has been observed when larger cases are used containing a greater number of units. See also EARTHENWARE.
EPHEDRINE Is highly hygroscopic and should be kept cool and free from moisture. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ESERINE SULPHATE Generally packed in vials. If the screw caps become loose, the contents will turn into a reddish-brown precipitate due to deliquescence and exposure to light and air, usually resulting in total loss of value. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ESPARTO (See Alfa)
ESSENCES, FRUIT These commodities are usually shipped in metal containers, packed in suitable cases. Are subject to damage if stowed near boilers or other hot space, in which case, through expansion of the liquid, welded tins may begin to leak, causing the essences to change color and lose flavor potency. See FRUIT JUICES and also CANNED GOODS.
ESSENTIAL OILS Subject to such oils being shipped in suitable and sufficiently strong containers, there is little reason to fear loss or damage, but there are certain essential oils, such as Cinnamon Leaf Oil and Clove Oil, which may suffer discoloration if shipped in an unsuitable container. Such oils should not, for instance, be shipped in tinplate containers, as this may well cause discoloration, but even so, proper treatment may restore the commodity. Such oils are not affected when shipped in aluminum or stainless steel containers, but, on the other hand, such containers may affect other types of oil in a similar manner. In the event of a claim on account of discoloration, therefore, the surveyor should consider this problem in determining the cause of any alleged deterioration by reason of discoloration. The surveyor should also take an expert's advice as to whether the discoloration has in effect resulted in deterioration. The raw products used in the manufacture of essential oils, seeds, roots, etc., are liable to deterioration by contact with moisture.
ETERNIT PRODUCTS This material is composed of asbestos and cement, and is very friable. It is generally shipped in bulk and must be very well dunnaged usually by experts or the producers themselves who superintend the loading operations.
ETHER Usually packed in small metal cans or bottles with stoppers. In the case of metal cans these usually have metal stoppers secured by means of solder. The stoppers are liable to be jarred loose during transit, in which case the labels may be found to be stained and part of the original fluid content may be lost due to seepage and evaporation. When packed in bottles with press caps, vapor may escape, although the cap may have the appearance of being quite secure. Sometimes bottles have glass stoppers and paper caps tied with string and dipped in wax. When stowed out of the upright position the stoppers may become loose, allowing the contents to melt the wax, which may give rise to loss due to evaporation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
EXPELLER SEEDS (See Oilseeds). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
EXTRACTION MEALS (See also IMDG Code & US CFR.) COPRA EXTRACTION MEAL - Coconut extraction meal comprises residues arising from oil extraction from copra (coconut flesh) performed using an extraction solvent. It is either held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. It is transported as bulk cargo, being seldom handled as bagged goods these days. Grain size: flakes of varying sizes Oil content: 0.1 - 1.5%
EXTRACTION MEALS COTTON SEED EXTRACTION MEAL - Cottonseed extraction meal comprises residues arising from oil extraction from cottonseed performed using an extraction solvent. It is either held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. It is transported as bulk cargo, being seldom handled as bagged goods these days. Grain size: flakes of varying sizes Oil content: 0.1 - 1.5%
EXTRACTION MEALS PEANUT EXTRACTION MEAL - Peanut extraction meal comprises residues arising from oil extraction from peanuts performed using an extraction solvent. It is either held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. It is transported as bulk cargo, being seldom handled as bagged goods these days. Grain size: flakes of varying sizes Oil content: 0.1 - 1.5%
EXTRACTION MEALS SOYBEAN EXTRACTION MEAL - Soybean extraction meal comprises residues arising from oil extraction from soybeans performed using an extraction solvent. It is either held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. It is transported as bulk cargo, being seldom handled as bagged goods these days. Grain size: approx. 40 - 80% of the total volume of a bulk cargo is of a grain size of diameter < 2 mm Oil content: 0.5 - 1.0%
FABRICS Defects in dyeing and manufacture may occasionally be mistaken for water stains or leakage from other cargo. In all cases of damage by seawater, immediate cleaning is essential. If proper facilities are not available, the material should be thoroughly washed in fresh, cold water. See COTTONS, WOOL, and also TEXTILES. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FARINA A starchy foodstuff; also used in the manufacture of glue, etc. Liable to damage by humidity and odors.
FATS Mold damage may also arise from the paste used to seal the paper wrappers. Lard so damaged can sometimes be rendered again and reconditioned. If so damaged as to be unfit for rendering, a market can be found for soap manufacture. In the case of cocoa butter, as this commodity has a low melting point, care should be exercised in selecting stowage in the coolest part of the ship. Losses by heat can be averted by use of suitable packing. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
FATS COCOA BUTTER - as this commodity has a low melting point, it should be stowed in the coolest part of the vessel, for when in a melted condition is liable to damage by admixture with foreign matters. When contaminated by water, the external layer only may be subject to damage.
FATS BUTTER - there are two varieties of butter, generally, viz.: (1) Sweet cream butter (2) Sour cream butter These cannot readily be distinguished from one another. In countries where the food authorities demand a specification for sweet cream butter to be complied with, shipments of sour cream butter may fail to comply with the regulations and may be either condemned or have permission for import rescinded. Such butter is not necessarily damaged, despite analytical reports of high bacterial count. When fresh butter in prints or paper wrappers is left out of cold storage for some time, moisture condenses and collects on the outer surface of the paper wrappers in droplets. If these droplets of water are not removed before the packages of butter are put back into cold storage a dark green fungus growth may appear on the paper wrappers at the spots where the water had collected. This fungus gradually penetrates the paper wrappers and into the butter, causing contamination. Mold may occur on butter, causing dark patches on the surface. The mold may spread from wooden containers, and butter boxes are often pre-treated with salicylanilide to check this. Mold fungi can develop as surface growths, blackish spots spreading to brown stains, green surface growths, bright red stains, etc. Nutrient matter encouraging mold growth may sometimes come from the wood of the packing boxes. The wrapping of butter in parchment paper serves to exclude air, but the contact should be close and without wrinkles or the air space may lead to mold growth. The paper wrappers should be free from softeners such as glycerol and the use of gums or gummed paper should be avoided, as these may promote mold growth. Butter, a dairy product, is a water-in-fat emulsion. It is considered a high grade edible fat and is normally yellow in color. The history of butter reaches back into antiquity. It is assumed that butter has been made ever since humans started drinking milk. For example, butter was used as a food in ancient Persia and Egypt. The butter production process may in brief be divided into the following stages: - separation of the cream from the milk by leaving it to stand or spinning it in a centrifuge, - pasteurization at above 90 degrees C to reduce the activity of enzymes and microorganisms, - beating the cooled cream in a butter churn or butter making machine (churning), - kneading and shaping of the butter, - packaging. Chemically speaking, butter consists of the following constituents: - fats approx. 82% - water approx. 16% - nonfat milk components approx. 2% The main constituents of butter are glycerol and fatty acids. Butter is transported in either chilled or frozen form. The advantages of transport in frozen form are, firstly, a longer storage life and, secondly, greater stack ability of the product. These advantages are counterbalanced by the greater refrigeration capacity required throughout the transport chain. In Germany, butter is primarily made from sour cream with added lactic acid bacteria, a practice which considerably accelerates separation of the cream and moreover ensures a better churning result than when butter is made from sweet, fresh cream. Butter is offered for sale in either salted or unsalted form.
FATS LARD - only pure refined quality lard preserves its firm white character if exposed to prolonged heat. Inferior qualities become yellow in color. Lard in casks may be subject to loss in weight due to absorption of some fat by the containers. Unless air is excluded, even pure white lard will undergo flavor spoilage (rancidity).
FATS OLEOMARGARINE -- If cartons are damaged during transit, the contents may become mixed with impurities, rancid and emitting a sour odor. Oleomargarine in this condition cannot be used as a basis for the manufacture of margarine, but can be utilized in the manufacture of soap.
FATTY ACIDS (See Acids)
FECULA Starch extracted from tubers and roots, such as potatoes, arrow root tapioca, etc. Liable to deterioration by humidity and odors which are readily absorbed.
FERROUS METAL PRODUCTS (See Iron and Steel Products). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FERTILIZERS (General) Unless packing is sufficient, i.e. lined bags, many fertilizers may be subject to loss due to their being in the form of a fine powder. Similarly, loss may arise out, of tearing or bursting of the bags, which may also occur if the bags become wet. Fertilizers are liable to deterioration by exposure, due to loss of nitrogen content, and should be stored as soon as possible. Fertilizers are often transported in bulk and, as such, are subject to contamination by debris, shrinkage (usually less than 0.5%), and wetting. See also PHOSPHATES and SUPERPHOSPHATES. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FIBERS The main causes of damage to fiber are the effect of moisture (inherent in some fibers), or contact with water or oil, which may give rise to hoop rust and heating, followed by spontaneous combustion. Some fibers contain moisture when pressed and in such cases a suitable interval is usually allowed before shipment to allow the moisture to be worked off. In cases of damage arising from these causes, it will usually be found that this extends from the middle of the bales outwards. Fiber may be subject to a natural loss in weight and also have a tendency to absorb moisture. Before attributing a cause of damage to contact with fresh or salt water, consideration should be given to the possibility of moisture having been absorbed from a humid or moist atmosphere. Care should also be taken in attributing cause of damage to contact with salt water, as in the case of some fibers a softening treatment is adopted before manufacture which may involve the use of river water with a salt content. A test for chlorides should be made with samples from both sound and damaged material. It is essential that wet damaged or heated bales be opened up, dried, and, if necessary, reprocessed as speedily as possible in order to minimize the damage. Some fibers of poor quality may contain a small quantity of slightly soiled or poorly brushed fiber with green residue adhering. Country damaged fiber may be found dry but discolored and friable, the bales in such cases giving the appearance of having been stored in the open air or on damp ground. Stowing of fiber, fiber mats, etc, with other commodities liable to give off moisture may cause discoloration. Most fibers are very subject to mold growth. When material is carried in jute bags (e.g. sugar) any development of mold fungi on the bags may adversely affect the contents. Fabrics and ropes are customarily either "mildew proofed" to resist occasional damp storage, or "rot-proofed" to resist more continuous exposure to moisture. Fiber that has become useless for the purpose intended, may have an alternative market as inferior stuffing for mattresses, etc. If fiber is shipped in a damp condition, heating may occur which, while not actually causing a conflagration, will tend to rot the fiber. This cannot be observed from the outside of the bale and may only be discovered after the bale has been opened up, when the fiber damaged by heating it will be found to be in an extremely brittle condition. In such cases, the value of the damaged commodity may fall considerably, the amount of loss sustained being dependent upon the intended use. A contributory cause of fiber suffering damage through heating is the pressure put on the bales. Fiber has a tendency to absorb moisture. If the bales show signs of wetting or staining, the weight of such bales should be compared with the weight of sound bales. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FIBERS ABACA FIBER (Manilla Hemp) - A textile fiber from the banana tree used in the manufacture of rope, mats, paper, etc. Water-damaged fiber requires immediate drying and reprocessing.
FIBERS JUTE FIBER - Is apt to lose strength if exposed for a prolonged period to the action of salt water in a confined space. When jute cloth (in bale form) becomes wet, a chemical action may take place which sets up a considerable amount of heating, when the cloth naturally deteriorates and in some cases will rot to such a degree as to render it to powder. Country damaged bales of jute may be externally discolored in places, the bales often showing small stains only, but on opening the bales it may be found that the damage has spread badly in the middle, the jute being friable and dry. When bales are dispatched wet the rope lashings may burst. Although bales may be outwardly dry to the touch, latent moisture may set up dry rot in the heart of the bales, powdering the fiber. If moisture penetrates the bales to any extent it causes mold, discoloration, and deterioration of the fibers. The damaged part can, as a rule, be used for inferior bags, or an inferior stuffing (mattresses, etc.) Jute is the spinnable bast fiber, of an average length of 1.50 - 3 m, obtained from the jute plant. Jute belongs to the linden family (Tiliaceae). These annual plants grow to 2 - 3 m in height with a stalk 2 - 3 cm in diameter. Like flax, jute is usually obtained by cold water retting, which takes 10 - 20 days, followed by washing and drying. Jute is the most important natural fiber plant alongside cotton and, with flax and hemp, among the top three stalk fibers. The fiber's high lignin content (approx. 12%) means that it is brittle, loses tensile strength on exposure to light and has little resistance to moisture and acids. Jute is the most highly hygroscopic natural fiber. Jute fibers have a polygonal cross-section of variable size, the lumen being of variable width. Cuttings are the trimmed 15 - 40 cm long ends of the jute fiber; they are also commercially available under this name. "Meshta" is a somewhat coarser fiber from Thailand, very similar to jute and also known as "kenaf". Jute from East Pakistan - In the jute trade a seller is allowed to deliver to a buyer, if shipment is made during July, August, and September, fiber containing 12% excess moisture, thereafter the seller is only allowed to deliver fiber containing 10% excess moisture. In the event of dispute it is customary for a board of arbitration to be set up consisting of senior members of the jute trade. The percentage of excess moisture in a parcel is decided by handling the jute itself and, although this may appear to be an antiquated method, it is understood that in practice comparatively accurate results are achieved. Some mills have small electric ovens; they weigh the jute, bake it comparatively dry, and then leave it for twenty-four hours to re-assimilate natural moisture before weighing. They then claim the difference between the first weight and the weight after re-weighing as excess moisture and deduct this from the sales bill. This method is recognized to produce absolutely accurate results, but it is understood very few sellers will agree to sell on this basis. A further method of assessing the moisture content is by means of an American machine with four prongs which are driven into the center of a bale, the moisture content being registered on a dial. Jute can be baled with anything up to 30% excess moisture and still appear dry on the surface. It is believed that any heart damage, which is attack within the bales and occurs only when the jute is abnormally damp, is due to excess moisture which has probably been added to the jute deliberately. If this is done skillfully, the only certain method of detection is for the bales to be opened and the fiber inspected. Fire - It is now thought that jute is not subject to spontaneous combustion. In fact, it is believed that in many cases fires were due to human action, the most common method being to place inside a bale a mixture containing cow-dung and sulphur. According to the experts, it is difficult to say how long this will take to set fire to the jute, but sooner or later it ignites. There have been fires on ships attributed to spontaneous combustion, but it is thought that in these cases the bales work loose in stow, fire eventually being caused by the consequent friction. Jute, especially Indian jute, is, however, highly combustible, and should be treated as a hazardous cargo.
FIBERS SISAL HEMP - Sisal hemp is a 60 - 100 cm long fiber from the sword-shaped leaves (leaf fiber) of the approximately 2 m tall sisal agave (Agave sisalana), a member of the lily family (Liliaceae). The sisal plant comes from the native Mexican henequen plant, for which reason Mexican sisal used to be called henequen. These days, it is the generally large East African plantations which are of particular commercial importance. Like Manila hemp, sisal hemp is a hard fiber. The fibers are white to yellowish-white in color, resistant, supple and light-weight. Sisal hemp is only slightly inferior in quality to Manila hemp. The fibers are obtained from the fresh leaves by decorticators, washed and dried in the sun. Decorticators are fully automatic machines, to which the sisal leaves are fed cross-ways on a conveyor belt. They remove the leaf tissue by crushing, scraping and washing. If this procedure is not performed carefully, the fibers become blotchy. The leaf cross-section reveals that the leaves are protected by a wax layer (cuticle) (55% cutin, 20% wax) and the fiber strands are distributed throughout the spongy parenchyma.
FIBERS RAMIE - Ramie belongs to the natural vegetable fibers of the stinging nettle family (Urticaceae) and, like flax, is a soft fiber. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea and Boehmeria viridis), considered the oldest cultivated plant of East Asia, is cultivated in particular in Indonesia, China, Japan and India. Due its origin, it is also known as China grass. It is transported either as raw ramie (China grass) or as macerated ramie (obtained by boiling in an aqueous solution), i.e. degummed ramie. 1 - 2 m long rods as thick as a finger are obtained from the ramie plant. The fibers cannot be detached from these rods by retting, but instead the rods are split lengthwise and the bark is removed from the wooden core. The bundles of fibers are found in the bark. The up to 2 m long raw fibers are dried and chemically macerated to produce spinnable fibers.
FIBERS PALM FIBER - Palm fiber is a leaf fiber (hard fiber) obtained from the leaves of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis), a member of the palm family (Palmae). It is also known as vegetable horsehair. The dwarf palm, Europe's only wild palm, is a fan palm which grows in the western Mediterranean area forming knee-high undergrowth in North Africa and Southern Spain. During the dry season, the fibers are obtained from the leaves by mowing, hackling, combing and spinning. The greenish fibers are traded as twisted hanks.
FIBERS SISAL - Fiber obtained from species of agaves. Is used in the manufacture of twine, cordage, etc. Sisal may be artificially or naturally dried. The latter has a much more yellow appearance than the former, which is nearly white. Water damage will cause the fiber to go black and give off a musty smell.
FIBERS ALOES FIBER - A textile fiber from tropical plants. If not properly cleaned before shipment, heat in transit may cause the juice of the fiber to exude.
FIBERS COIR FIBER - Coir Mats - Coir Yarn - Coir or coconut fiber is obtained from the husks of the coconut. The husks are steeped in water for a considerable time, often months, before the fiber can be separated and made ready for use. In Southern India, where use is made of river water to soften the husks, it often happens that near the coast river water is not free from the influence of salt water, and consequently the coir may retain the properties of salt. Salt water acts as a preservative, except that, in the case of baled yarn, exposure to salt water quickly causes hoop rust and results in staining of the yarn. Hydraulically pressed bales may become damaged by hoop rust owing to long storage, and sometimes excessive dampness before pressing. Also, if not properly covered by bamboo mats and gunnies.
FIBERS HEMP - Unlike jute, does not readily powder and deteriorate. If water penetrates the bales to any extent, or if the bales are subjected to conditions of humidity, the material may become moldy and discolored and the fiber deteriorate. Hemp is a vegetable fiber obtained from the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa), which is native to central Asia. The hemp plant is a member of the hemp family (Cannabaceae). The plant grows to a height of 3 - 4 m. The male plants (fimble hemp) ripen earlier and must be harvested earlier. These plants yield particularly fine fibers. The female plants are more highly branched and bear denser foliage. The whitish to yellow fibers, which are highly water-resistant and have good tensile strength, reach a length of up to 50 mm. Similarly to cotton, the majority of hemp consists of cellulose. Hemp is also known as soft hemp and should not be confused with Manila hemp or sisal hemp, which are hard fibers. Processing methods are similar to those for flax. Cold water retting takes 20 - 30 days, hot water retting 3 - 4 days. Due to the greater hardness of the hemp fiber, mechanical processing is more difficult than for flax. The spinnable length of the hemp fiber is 70 - 80 cm. The internal structure of the hemp stalk is largely similar to that of the flax stalk. The processable fiber is somewhat larger because the hemp stalk is substantially longer. Hemp fibers have oval or rounded polygonal cross-sections with an irregular lumen, which is often narrowed to a slit. The crude fibers are combed with hatchels to yield the long spinnable fibers, the short fibers (pluckings or tow) remaining between in the steel teeth of the comb.
FIBERS MANILA HEMP - Manila hemp is obtained from the abaca, a plant of the banana family (Musaceae), which is also known as the fiber or weaving banana, so explaining the term banana hemp. Manila hemp is a leaf fiber (hard fiber) obtained from the leaf sheaths of the large banana leaves. These sheaths together form a pseudostem 3 - 4 m in height. Fiber strips up to 8 cm in width ("tuxies") are cut lengthwise from the leaf sheaths, separated from the fleshy parts and dried and bleached in the sun. Manila hemp is lustrous, yellowish white, 2 - 4 m in length and, like sisal, is a hard fiber. Manila hemp must not be confused with hemp, which is a soft fiber. It is classified into the following grades on the basis of fineness: - "Bandala" is the fiber obtained from the outer, older leaf sheaths of the pseudostem. It is brownish to purple in color. It is a coarse fiber which is preferably converted into tarred ships' ropes, nets and other cordage. - "Lupis" is a somewhat finer fiber. - "Tupoz" is the light-colored fiber obtained from the inner, younger leaf sheaths. The best qualities are milky white. These are the finest fibers which are converted into nets, ropes, hammocks, furniture coverings, binder twines, cords and hats. - "Tow" is the fiber waste which is converted into very high quality paper (Manila paper). Manila hemp is distinguished by its low weight, tear strength and resistance to weather and water. Its tensile strength is three times that of cotton and twice that of sisal.
FIBERS PIASSAVA - Like chair cane and raffia, piassava is a palm fiber. It is obtained from the leaf or leaf rib fiber from tropical palm species (Palmae)). The main source is the Attalea funifera palm, which is native to the tropical forests of the Amazon and grows to up to 15 m in height. The piassava fiber is a yellow to dark brown, resilient fiber of varying thickness. Piassava fibers are divided into two groups. The "Bahia", "Para", "Venezuela" and "Madagascar" piassavas differ from the "Sierra Leone", "Liberia" and "Nigeria" piassavas. Arenga or Gumati fiber, a somewhat darker fiber than piassava, comes bundled in bales from Indonesia and has the same characteristics as piassava.
FIBERS RAFFIA - Like chair cane and piassava, raffia is a palm fiber. It is obtained from the leaf or leaf rib fiber from tropical palm varieties (Palmae)) and should not be confused with the palm-type fibers such as yucca and aloe, which come from the Liliaceae family. Raffia is also sold under the name raffia bast. The raffia palm (Raphia farinifera) was originally native to Madagascar; however, stocks there have been decimated by over-exploitation. This palm is now cultivated in West and East Africa. Raffia palms are up to 20 m high, the palm crowns carrying pinnate leaves up to 15 m long and up to 3 m wide. The young, as yet unopened leaves are covered with the raffia bast, which is removed, dried and packaged in bales. Raffia fibers have very good strength and stretch. They are 1.5 - 1.8 m long and 0.04 m wide.
FIGS (Dried) (See Fruits, Dried)
FILBERTS (Hazel Nuts) (See Nuts and Kernels)
FILES (Metal) Rust damage can arise from the nature of the paper used in separating the files in the cases in which they were packed. In one instance analysis of the paper revealed the presence of aluminium, calcium, potassium and sulphate. A test on the paper showed that it burned with some difficulty due to the presence of these various salts.
FILTER PAPER Filter paper is a woodfree, unsized absorbent paper manufactured from rags, which is particularly pure and has a defined separation capacity and filtration rate.
FIRECLAY, GROUND After having been in contact with seawater is generally considered as valueless, as not only does it lose its essential characteristics, but in all probability, refractoriness as well.
FISH OIL Exposure of the oil in broken containers may cause a heavy film and tendency to become rancid. The term fish oil is frequently used to cover herring oil, whale oil, seal oil and sperm oil. Although they are of similar composition, they are not the same, as whales and seals are not fish. The potential risks are substantially the same for the various types of oil.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. GENERAL - Very often damage is due to the fish not being quite sound and properly cured before loading. Fish can develop a "skin-heat" (boiled, burned), the cause of which is too much heat, and this can be distinguished by the skin being loosened here and there. This damage may develop on the wet-salted fish, or partly dried fish. Wet-salted and dried fish may also develop a disease known variously as "Pink," "Pinkeye," "Red mite." It can arise out of many causes such as humidity, etc. but it is commonly stated to exist in certain salts. Once a packing house is infected it is not easy to eradicate. Pink discoloration is inherent and may not show itself at any particular time, but may suddenly appear during various stages of curing or while in transit. These pink organisms do not, however, grow below a temperature of approximately 41 degrees F but the rate of growth is very sensitive to temperatures above this figure. The tails and fins of sun cured fish may resemble glue to the touch due to over-exposure to the sun during curing. Dried fish is sometimes used as a fertilizer, and when shipped for this purpose, it if becomes wetted, it should be spread and dried promptly; the percentage of nitrogen content should not then be affected. Mixing with ice or chilling has very definite limitations as a method of preserving the fresh quality of newly caught fish, as, although utmost care may be observed in handling and packing, the more commercially important species of white fish, e.g. cod, haddock, hake etc., cannot be kept in a reasonably fresh condition for more than 10-12 days from the time of catching when stowed in crushed ice. In the case of herrings and similar fatty fish the period is even shorter. The quality of frozen fish can be adversely affected by very slow freezing, and in the case of "unglazed" fish, storage at too high a temperature will affect the fish. It should be borne in mind that the most perfect of cold storage conditions cannot improve the quality of fish, it can only fix the quality of the fish at the time of freezing. In other words, unless the fish is in perfect condition at the time of freezing it will not be in perfect condition when removed from cold store. If the fish is put in cold store within a short period after catching there should be no deterioration due to cold storage if, of course, the cold storage is satisfactory. If, however, the raw material is not so fresh, or is stale, some deterioration must be expected even under the best conditions of cold storage. Quite often fish is sent on long voyages at temperatures in the region of 14 degrees F. Shipment under such conditions would limit the storage life of the fish, and on long voyages such fish would be reaching a state of unpalatability. Temperatures of 20 degrees F are essential if fish are to be kept for a period of many months in the same condition as when they were caught. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. CANNED FISH (See CANNED GOODS)
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. FISH MEAL - Commonly used as an ingredient of feeding mixtures. If, in its damaged condition it should be unfit for this purpose, it can also be used as compost fertilizer in so far as its price permits. Fish meal is a commodity which cannot stand much pressure and is inclined to become heated as a result of its content of moisture and fat. This liability to heat may cause the container bags to deteriorate and split open. When shipped in paper bags the effect of the heated meal may cause the bags to break when lifted. If fish meals under pressure are subjected to high temperatures there generally occurs a strong discoloration which varies in its intensity, that is to say, the meal becomes a dark color. It is sometimes the practice at South Asian ports to accumulate stocks of Fish Meal in readiness for eventual shipment, and if these stocks are exposed to monsoon conditions there is a likelihood of their acquiring an increased moisture content through absorption from the atmosphere. In this event the liability to deterioration during transit is enhanced. The handling of fish meal in certain ports may be very expensive by reason of the dock laborers or longshoremen regarding this as a dirty cargo or, as it is sometimes called, a "penalty" cargo, and the re-bagging charges may be found to be out of all proportion to any loss. Japanese fish meal is light golden brown in color and should be stowed in between decks in piles not more than three bags wide and six to seven bags high. Maximum ventilation should be provided. The product is subject to self-oxidation which causes color to change from light golden brown to dark brown or black. If stowed in deep holds, self-oxidation increases free fatty acid content in ratio to extracted oil. High acid content is fatal to poultry. Peruvian fish meal is generally coarse, medium to dark brown in color; is subject to same inherent vice as Japanese fish meal.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. SQUID or CUTTLE FISH (Dried) - If the squid is not properly dried out before packing it often gives off an offensive odor and may be subject to considerable losses in weight. A mold growth is liable to form on the fish which is not easily removed. Heavy claims are encountered when the dried squid comes into contact with water, as the fish tend to swell back to their normal size, and in this condition are readily attacked by maggots and vermin. The salvage value of damaged dried squid is very low.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. STOCKFISH - Should be kept dry and away from heat. Is liable to develop surface mold, and moisture or heat will cause the fish to deteriorate, becoming discolored and flaccid. Stockfish is particularly prone to infestation with Bacon Beetle (Leather Beetle) may gain or lose weight according to season. The usual packing (wire-bound bales) is often inadequate, and when transshipment takes place shortage and damage are likely. Depreciation of loose portions from bales should not be admitted unless actual damage is proved. The usual means of marking is by tie-on labels, which may become detached, with the result that one consignee may receive more valuable bales at the expense of another importer.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. WET SALTED FISH - In bulk or in Hessian bales is subject to decay when confined in warm holds or spaces without adequate ventilation. Adequate dunnage should be used to avoid direct contact between the fish and the ship's bulkheads, tunnel, etc. Incipient or advanced decay are evidenced by the skin of the fish becoming discolored gelatinous and easily rubbed off. This commodity is apt to deteriorate as a consequence of short salting or the use of the improper quality of salt. Pink stains on the flesh and especially along the bone are generally considered as inherent vice and are caused by bacteria, and fungi such as Pseudomonas salinaria and others. Pink-stained codfish or codfish deteriorated by bilge water can be salvaged by thorough washing in very strong brine, salting and cold storage, or in some cases by brushing and cold storage.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. HERRINGS IN BRINE - Have on occasion been found to have suffered damage similar to decomposition, being found limp and with skins open, disclosing the roe and very often all the rib bones. This condition may result not from the age of the fish but due to the time and place of the original catch. Herrings caught in the summer off the North East Coast of England are always soft and tender skinned and should not be brine-cured especially for shipment to a warmer climate. Herrings caught early in the summer on the grounds off the North Coast of Scotland or the Shetland Islands, and in the winter off the East Anglian Coast should, on the contrary, keep their condition, as they are harder and have thicker skins. Should summer herrings caught off the North-East Coast of England be brinecured they are liable to be delivered in the condition described above, in which event decomposition becomes rapid on opening the barrels.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. CRAYFISH - A shell fish that is handled similar to shrimp. Requires proper air circulation when in cool chambers. If the chamber is full and proper circulation of air is prevented, damage to the fish may result. Damage of this nature might give rise to the belief that there has been a breakdown of the refrigerating machinery.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. DRIED SALTED FISH - Damage may be due to overlong transportation, changes of climate, and to under curing and infection by red mite. Slight outside damage from water or humidity will cause certain depreciation even to well-cured fish (especially when packed in bales), the fish on the top and bottom of cases or bales becoming moist and damp; this is often the cause of the so-called "Dun" or "black-mite" (a type of fungus) . This is harmless and doesn't make the fish less edible, nor provoke deterioration, but it does spoil the appearance of the fish. The extent of damage by moistness, red-mite infection, etc. depends very much on the temperature during the sea voyage, ventilation on board and the temperature at the port of discharge. A slimy skin, soft or pulpy flesh, some what discolored with a musty smell, is not necessarily the result of water damage, but may be due to defective salting. This type of fish is easily damaged by seawater or contact with oil and grease, and is subject to a natural loss in weight when shipped from Norway during July or August. Dried salted cod, pollock, etc. shipped from Canada to various West Indian ports are usually cured fairly lightly and will not stand any delay, especially in hot climates. The first signs of deterioration are that the flesh of the fish starts to turn pink in the vicinity of the head of the fish. Eventually the fish deteriorates to the extent that it becomes a liquid mass. Care should be taken by the surveyor not to mistake this deterioration as being due to contact with water.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. FISH MANURE - A fertilizer, the product of fish from which the oil has been extracted. It is subject to heat and insect infestation
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. FISH MAWS (Indian - Unsalted) - The packaging may bear evidence of staining, giving the appearance of contact with water or a damp surface. The maws adjacent to the stained areas may have patches of white mold, with green mold showing here and there, and mixed with the mold may appear a pink discoloration. This form of damage can be caused due to the fish maws having been packed with a percentage of moisture sufficiently high to render the commodity vulnerable to mold and bacteria attack, and not due to any fortuitous cause.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. FROZEN FISH - Occasionally packets of frozen fish fillets may be found to contain a number of small pieces which have been packed to make up the weight. If claims for disintegration in packaged frozen fillets arise, care should be taken to establish that the packing of small pieces has not been the cause of the complaint. Fish are cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates. They usually have a streamlined body covered with scales which is divided into head, gill, trunk and tail parts. On the basis of body shape, saltwater fish are divided into round and flat fish. Important saltwater fish include herring, cod, rosefish, mackerel and tuna. Fish is even more perishable than meat. This is attributable not only to the protein-decomposing enzymes which are still active at low temperatures and the large proportion of psychrophilic microorganisms associated with fish, but also to the low connective tissue content of fish. In comparison with lean fish (trout, codling, rosefish or pollack), oily types of fish, such as eel, herring or salmon are particularly at risk of spoilage. Fish are frozen by the flash or rapid freezing process, sometimes while still on board the fishing vessels.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. HERRINGS (Smoked, Salted and Reds) - Liable to develop surface mold. Easily broken, especially after wetting. In conditions of high temperature, deterioration may be rapid. Light mildew and soft or pulpy flesh is not necessarily due to wetting but to in sufficient or defective curing. Mold can be removed with cotton waste dipped in vegetable oil.
FISH, FISHMEAL, FISH MANURE, etc. MACKEREL (Tins Packed in Fiber Carton) - It has been found that tins of mackerel are in some parts of the world, packed in cartons too large to hold exactly the forty-eight tins, the empty space being packed with straw; consequently, when the cartons are stowed one on top of the other, the lower cartons break, damaging the contents.
FLAX Usually packed in Hessian-covered bales of 200 to 450 lb. per bale. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. See also FIBERS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. Flax fibers are the retted bast fibers of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum), which belongs to the Linaceae family and has been cultivated for several millennia. The ancient Egyptians made mummy wrappings from flax, while woven linen fabrics originating from Europe which date from the same period are also known. The flax plant consists of root, stalk and branches bearing the seed capsules. Only the processable central portion of the stalk is usable for spinning purposes. This central portion is delimited by the cotyledonary node and the bottom of the branches. Before the seeds are even ripe, the flax plants are uprooted whole and placed in water (water retting), so separating the fibers from the remainder of the stalk. A distinction is drawn between cold water retting (10 - 14 days) and hot water retting (a few days at temperatures of up to 35 degrees C). After washing, the flax straw is usually kiln dried. The stalks are bent by intermeshing wooden boards and the fibers removed from the lignified stalks. The crude fibers are combed with hatchels to yield the long spinnable fibers, the short fibers (pluckings or tow) remaining between in the steel teeth of the comb. Flax fibers are gray to light blond in color, very strong but at the same time also flexible. The fibers may be up to 140 cm in length, but approx. 60 cm is usual. When a flax stalk is snapped, the flax fibers protrude from the broken ends, each fiber consisting of cells up to 5 cm in length. The sharp ends of the cells interlock and are thus suitable for producing woven linen fabrics. The chemical composition of flax fibers, relative to dry weight, is as follows: - Cellulose 71% - Polyoses 18.5% - Pectins, pigments 6.5% - Lignin 2% - Waxes 2%
FLAX FLAX TOW - When pure flax fiber (see flax) is produced from flax straw by combing with steel combs, the short fibers or tow are left behind; these short fibers are traded as flax tow or pluckings. Tow comprises the random fibers arising as waste from the processing of stalk fibers. Lower grade unretted flax straw is converted into flax tow by tow finishing.
FLOUR May be packed in gunny bags. It is liable to tainting, heating and caking when wet. Dampness causes flour to heat and ferment, resulting in an odor which can permeate other cargo stacked nearby. Moldiness and caking may be due to stowage close up to an insulated bulkhead; in fact flour will always turn moldy and cake unless stowed well clear from such bulkheads with free ventilation space between. The longer the extraction of flour, i.e. the darker the flour, the greater is the risk of its going lumpy under hot weather conditions. Lumpiness can arise without any contact with water. It is risky to send long extraction flour on a long, hot journey to the Tropics. Lumpiness in flour may arise out of natural causes. Certain flours are more liable to become lumpy than others, especially when subjected to a long ocean voyage through tropical climates and when stored for a long period in a hot climate, particularly if under pressure. Recent contact with water limits the damage to a coating of caked flour, which protects the remaining flour in the bags from water infiltration, and provided the flour is quickly segregated and the caked flour removed, a good portion of the contents may be saved. If this operation is not carried out with the utmost speed the flour not affected by water will be tainted and badly damaged through lack of ventilation. Flour is also lost through tearing of containers as a result of careless handling or the eating of part of the bags by rodents. Sweepings are usually collected and are replaced in slack bags, provided they are deemed free from dirt and impurities; otherwise sweepings should be separately packed to avoid mixing with sound flour. Flour is also liable to be infested with insects; it should then be disinfected and sieved. A musty odor should not be confused with an odor derived from the bag in which the flour is usually packed; such odors are usually removed by proper airing of the flour. Flour is very hygroscopic and will absorb and lose moisture ac cording to the conditions of stowage and storage. If stored in conditions of high humidity the development of mold, bacteria and insect life is accelerated. Such mold and bacteria are dormant in flour and only require certain conditions to cause this dormant life to manifest itself. Such development, however, does not necessarily destroy the flour which, if properly sifted, is fit for use. Very seriously infected flour, if unfit for human consumption, may be used for other purposes. Flour is frequently shipped in polythene bags enclosed in the usual cotton bags. When loaded in cold temperatures, sweat may take place (according to the voyage) while the goods are stowed in the vessel's hold, with the result that the outer covers may be found to be badly stained with green and black mildew, but with the flour unaffected. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FLUORSPAR (Fluorite) A dusty commodity commonly used in glass-making and in various branches of metallurgy and the manufacture of Hydrofluoric Acid. In some instances contact with salt water may be detrimental and prevent the material being used for its intended purpose, but on the other hand such damaged fluorspar should have a value in other directions. Damage by fresh water causes little loss in value except that some users may object to the increased moisture content, but this may be reduced by drying. Is subject to natural loss due to seepage of contents, particularly if not packed in small double bags. It is usually shipped in powder form, but if shipped in bulk, it may become powdery with resultant loss.
FLUXPHALT A type of asphalt more readily inflammable than ordinary asphalt. See also ASPHALT. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FOODSTUFFS (Tinned) (See Canned Goods)
FORMALDEHYDE Carried in bottles, shipping drums and stainless steel containers. Usually sold and transported as a 40% aqueous solution, and under certain circumstances may become a white solid. May also develop acidity; this ca See also IMDG Code & US CFR.uses considerable depreciation and is usually due to the presence of inherent impurities.
FOSSIL WAX Derived from petroleum; used in the textile industry. Highly combustible. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
FRENCH POLISH When shipped in casks, may be subject to a loss in weight due to evaporation and the absorption of some liquid by the containers.
FRESH FRUIT (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
FRESH VEGETABLES (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
FROZEN FISH (See Fish)
FRUIT (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
FRUIT ESSENCES (See Essences, Fruit)
FRUIT JUICES (Raw and Concentrated) Normally shipped for distribution, but may be shipped in larger containers. If the shipped container is damaged, allowing air to enter, the sulphur dioxide preservative which is in the solution tends to vaporize and the juices will ferment. If noticed in the early stages, sodium thiosulphate can be added, which may stop decomposition. See also FRUIT PULP.
FRUIT PULP, etc. The packing of these goods takes place at the time of gathering the crop, the exportation taking place some months or even a year later. Fruit pulp is generally shipped in a liquid form, in plastic or stainless steel containers or drums.
FRUITS (Canned) (See Canned Goods)
FRUITS (Dried) Dried fruits may be subject to a natural loss in weight due to loss of moisture content and from natural desiccation. They are readily damaged by moisture which may cause mold and mildew. Contact with water, humidity, sudden changes of temperature, heat or insufficient drying before shipment may cause fermentation, in which case the damaged portion should immediately be removed to avoid the remainder being affected. Prompt action should also be taken to have the fruit dried in order to minimize the loss. Fruits so affected may sometimes be used for the extraction of alcohol. Care should be taken in attributing the damage to contact with water, as pressure and heat coupled with the natural moisture content of the fruits themselves can give the appearance of water damage. Care should also be taken not to attribute the cause of damage to salt water merely because a chemical test gives a chloride reaction, as some sound fruits are likely to react to a test for chlorides to a small degree. Laboratory test suspect samples, for presence of seawater is recommended. Dried fruits, if not properly sterilized before shipment, are prone to infestation, which is encouraged by heat. The formation of a brownish powder indicates internal insect development which may also give rise to heating and mold development. Some dried fruits absorb moisture and this leads to the formation of mold, which is accelerated by heat. Dried fruits will absorb extraneous odors and should be stowed away from any commodity giving off an odor. Certain fruits (e.g. dates) should not, unless absolutely necessary, be kept in cold storage, as they are liable to sweat and spoil their containers when removed. Through age, the fruits shrink and lose their natural "bloom." Dried fruits also become "sugared with age, and care should be taken not to confuse "sugaring" through age with mold damage. If moldy, fruits become inedible, whereas if "sugared," they may be reconditioned by dipping in boiling water and subsequently drying out. After reconditioning, the fruits must be disposed of with the least possible delay. When packed in cartons, pressure from the piling of the packages on top of one another has a tendency to press in this fiber covering, bringing about direct weight on the contents, and so squeezing out the juices or moisture, not only causing damage in appearance but also attracting weevil, etc.
FRUITS (Dried) APPLES - Dried apples are peeled, cored and dried slices of the fruit of the apple tree, which is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae). They are a kind of dried fruit and are primarily traded as apple rings.
FRUITS (Dried) DATES - Damage usually occurs as a result of contact with water, causing the dates to ferment. Dates so affected can be used for the extraction of alcohol. They are subject to sourness on arrival at destination, which may arise through faulty preparation for shipment or prolonged storage. Dates are the berry fruits of the date palm of the palm family (Palmae, Arecaceae), which may reach up to 25 m in height. The date palm is one of the oldest cultivated plants and is probably native to the area around the Persian Gulf. The date palm is dioecious, and only a few male palms are kept; the female trees are pollinated by hanging pollen-impregnated cotton cloths over the female inflorescences, which then develop up to 200 dates per fruit spike. The single-seeded oval berry fruit, approximately the size of a plum, is golden yellow to brownish red in color and has soft flesh and an inedible stone. The water content of dates is reduced to 20% by natural or artificial drying. The latter process is preceded by immersion in boiling sodium hydroxide solution. Sometimes the stones, which constitute 15% of the fruit, are left in, resulting in dates with an attractive rounded appearance; the dates may on the other hand be stoned, but then have a sunken appearance.
FRUITS (Dried) PRUNES - Prunes are the fully ripe fruit still containing their stone of the plum tree (rose family, Rosaceae) which have been preserved by drying (air, sun or artificial drying) (dried fruit). The plum tree is native to Asia Minor and is now found throughout Europe and all over the world. The following types are distinguished: - Prunes: fresh, blue-black, glossy; form a whitish coating of crystallized sugar after extended storage. - Dipped prunes: prunes which have formed a coating of crystallized sugar but regain a blue-black, glossy appearance by dipping in boiling water. - Steamed prunes: prunes which have been given a glossy appearance by steam treatment. - Slabs: waste product intended for industrial use.
FRUITS (Dried) APRICOTS - Subject to inherent vice, which is aggravated by contact with heat. Dried apricots so damaged are generally found to be musty, hard, spotted and discolored and they gradually adopt a bluish-black hue. The apricot (rose family, Rosaceae) comes originally from China and the region between the Caspian and the Black Seas and is the stone fruit of the apricot tree. It is 4 - 8 cm in size. The flesh of fully ripened apricots is yellow to deep orange in color, juicy and extremely delicious. Fruits with a high water content have a low sugar content and little flavor. Dried apricots are a type of dried fruit. Apricots (whole, stoned, or as halves) are dried to a water content of 22%, either naturally (air or sun drying) or in drying plants. Apricot "slabs", which are made from overripe fruit that has fallen from the tree, are a particularly sweet and distinctive product. In order to extend storage life and prevent fermentative browning, which rapidly results in darkening of the fruit, the apricots are treated with sulfur vapor (sulfur dioxide, SO2). Apricots are the most sensitive of all dried fruits.
FRUITS (Dried) CURRANT - Currants belong to the grapevine family (Vitaceae) and are native to the Caspian Sea. They are dried grapes from the seedless Black Corinth vine. Currants, sultanas and raisins, including those still on the bunch, are known collectively as "raisins". The difference between these three dried fruits is explained below: Currants: seedless, small-berried, purple/black color. Their name derives from the Greek city of Corinth. Sultanas: seedless, large-berried and light yellow. Larger than currants and smaller than raisins. Raisins on the bunch: seeded, large-berried, generally with stalk. To produce: the grape-harvest takes place when the grapes are overripe. They are then either air-dried or increasingly dried in special drying plants. Currants are always sold without stalks and unsulfured. Currants are treated with vegetable oils to prevent them from sticking together and this treatment makes them look fresh. Currants have a sourish sweet flavor.
FRUITS (Dried) FIGS - Figs generally are sun-dried before shipment, to a degree in conformity with the requirements of the government or other authority at the place of shipment. Figs may, however, be subject to loss in weight from one or more causes. Pressure or mishandling in transit may result in the loss of syrup content, or this may be due to an excess of this content which may exude during the normal course of transit due to the figs not being in a proper condition for export. Despite the supervision of the sun-drying, the fruit may be shipped in too fresh a condition or with an excess of syrup content. It is generally considered, however, that figs of eight to twelve months of age and dried sufficiently for export purposes should show signs of sugar crystallization and in such a case the loss of syrup content should not be unduly heavy. Figs are the pear-shaped false fruits of the fig tree, of the mulberry family (Moraceae). They contain large numbers of tiny stone fruits inside them. They are preserved by drying (dried fruit). The fig tree, which is often more bush-like, is native to the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean. It is now widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. The drying process flattens the figs, resulting in the loss of their pear-like shape and the adoption of a round shape. Depending on quality, a distinction is drawn between natural figs and processed figs: - Natural figs are dried in the sun or by machine, threaded on cords or into rings. The glucose which crystallizes out and creates a dull surface with its granules preserves the figs naturally as dried fruit. - Processed figs undergo several operations, i.e. drying, immersion in salt water or steam treatment, pressing and then drying again. Pressing into particular shapes (slabs, rolls) and processing give the figs an attractive, shiny appearance. Figs processed in this way are commercially the most desirable.
FRUITS (Dried) RAISINS - Raisins are the dried, overripe fruit (dried fruit) of the grapevine, a climbing bush of the grapevine family (Vitaceae). "Raisin" is a collective term in particular for the following varieties: - Raisins on the bunch: seeded, large-berried, generally with stalk. - Sultanas: seedless, large-berried and light yellow. Larger than currants and smaller than raisins. - Currants: seedless, small-berried, purple/black color. Their name derives from the Greek city of Corinth. To produce: the grapes remain on the vine until they are overripe and, after picking, are dried in the air, in the sun (less aromatic than when dried in the shade) or in drying plants. Some are bleached by sulfuring (sulfur dioxide, SO2) and such treatment must be indicated on the packaging. In order to prevent the raisins from agglomerating (sticking together), they may be treated with vegetable oil. Due to their high sugar content (65 - 70%), raisins are very sweet.
FRUITS (Dried) SULTANAS - Sultanas belong to the grapevine family (Vitaceae) and are native to the Caspian Sea. Currants, sultanas and raisins, including those still on the bunch, are known collectively as "raisins".
FURNITURE AND HOUSEHOLD EFFECTS Wooden and metal furniture suffers from humidity, caused most often by rain. When carried from mild to cold climates in the winter may suffer by cracking and warping of veneers due to the dry atmosphere of the houses or warehouses owing to central heating. In the process of drying-out very often mold will form, and care should be taken by surveyors not to confuse this damage with that caused by contact with water. Corrugated cardboard manufactured by the sulphite process is frequently used to protect polished surfaces. Sweating and/or exposure to water, combined with pressure, causes bleaching of the surfaces along the lines of the corrugations. This necessitates stripping and repolishing the affected areas. White tissue paper is sometimes introduced between the corrugated cardboard and the furniture but this does not prevent damage occurring. This also applies to new furniture.
GALENA Galena is the sulphide of lead and is used for lead manufacture. Should be packed in drums. It is soft, powders readily, and is very dense and heavy. When very soft it can oxidize and a toxic sulphur dioxide gas can be given off. When such oxidation takes place, the amount of lead is unaffected, but it has to be refined in a different manner. Water flowing over galena does not affect it. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS The galvanizing process varies from factory to factory and country to country, and in some cases, if the galvanizing is poor and the metal thinly coated, flaking takes place, leaving the metal bare beneath; this may give rise to rust. If the galvanizing process has been properly carried out, any corrosion is usually limited to flaking and powdering and causes little, if any, damage. Generally speaking, white rust, so frequently found on galvanized iron sheets, wire, etc., is a basic zinc carbonate and zinc oxide which is common to damage caused by seawater, fresh water, atmospheric oxidation, etc. Care must be exercised in attributing a cause of white rust and it is preferable simply to report the analytical findings. In some countries, as a protection against rusting the sheets are given a coating of oil. Galvanized steel coils are typically packaged with an inner wrapping of water-resistant paper and an outer galvanized steel sacrificial wrapper. The ends and cores of the coils are often provided with heavier gauge galvanized sheets, to resist handling damage from forklift blades. The coils are typically strapped together with a series of equally spaced metal bands, running longitudinally and transversely about the coils. Galvanized steel may be hot dipped or cold dipped. The hot dipped galvanized coils are more susceptible to rust damage than cold dipped coils. On exposure to moist air, the surface becomes tarnished owing to it becoming covered with a film of oxide of zinc. This film of oxide passes gradually into a basic carbonate of zinc by absorption from the air of carbonic acid, which protects the zinc from further action. It is evident that contact with fresh water will result in the production of oxide of zinc. Whereas the film of oxide of zinc thus produced is converted into basic carbonate when exposed to the air, affording protection to the zinc coating, experience has shown that when the sheets are in close contact with one another, with water between them, the oxide formed does not so readily become converted into basic carbonate, with the result that further quantities of oxide of zinc are formed on the surfaces in contact. forming in many cases a fairly thick crust of oxide of zinc. The acid used in the galvanizing process is sometimes not altogether eliminated. This defect may, if the sheets are packed closely together, cause a soft powder to form which is liable to cause crusting in the form of corrosion and when this occurs it may be thought that the damage has been brought about by salt water. With the layer of zinc covering the metal completely or partly gone, the iron has a value at the current price of iron not galvanized. Damage by seawater can only be satisfactorily determined by means of a laboratory analysis on account of the fact that in addition to the ordinary chlorides which may be found in the rust deposit seawater contains salts of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, sulphates, bromides, and these are present in certain well defined proportions. The analyst should, therefore, find these salts present if damage is due to contact with seawater. If, after damage has been set up by contact with sea salts, the goods are subsequently exposed to rain, the salts present in seawater might well be washed away, thus destroying the original evidence of salt water contact.
GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS Damage by fresh water and atmospheric oxidation - rain water is commonly given as the cause of fresh water damage, but the composition of white rust on galvanized iron, whether caused by rain water or by atmospheric oxidation, is the same, and distinction between them by chemical means is not generally possible. Where, however, fresh water finds its way between galvanized sheets a definite line of incrustation is usually formed, possibly through out the length of the sheets, and the crust is thicker than normally may be expected from atmospheric action alone. Damage by improper processing, drying, etc - If hydrochloric acid or ammonium chloride are not properly removed after processing, corrosion is likely to be accelerated. The stacking of the sheets while still warm may result in moisture condensation, particularly in a cool climate, and any damage from this cause would not be distinguishable upon analysis from that caused by fresh water and atmospheric oxidation, etc. If, while still warm, sheets are packed and strapped ready for shipment under conditions where moisture is present in the atmosphere or on the sheets, such moisture is trapped between the sheets. This would result in condensation on the sheets when they cool, causing an electrolytic action to commence almost immediately, resulting finally in the formation of white rust by the time the sheets arrive at their destination. It may be accepted that no analysis can distinguish between damage due to improper processing or drying and fresh water or atmospheric oxidation. Similarly, no analysis will disclose whether the presence of seawater salts has been brought about by contact with actual seawater or whether the salts have become deposited in the rust as a result of their being present in the atmosphere. It is possible for these salts to become present in the atmosphere as a result of spray, either on the ocean voyage or at certain ports at certain times of the year, especially in the Tropics and the Far East. The process for testing for the cause of damage to galvanized iron sheets should be undertaken with considerable care. Stained portions of the sheets should be treated with boiling distilled water and a solution obtained, or a solution similarly obtained from the scrapings of the white rust found present. This solution will normally contain chlorides and sulphates from the galvanizing process, but if, in addition, there are found salts of magnesium, calcium, potassium, etc., then the rust may be due to contact with seawater or from a salt-laden atmosphere. The object of the analysis is to determine whether these salts are present, but the analyst is not normally in a position to certify the actual cause of the damage, namely, damage due to contact with seawater, fresh water, etc., and the analyst should issue a report confined to a statement of what the analysis actually discloses. When salts present in seawater are found, the report should mention the proportions in which they are present. It has been frequently noted that the staining of a sheet in the center does not extend to the edges, and although laboratory tests usually show the presence of salt in such cases, this is probably due to the presence of salt from the air during transit. The effects of water and moisture on galvanized sheets are largely due to the excess of moisture and a limited supply of air. This could be avoided by spacing the sheets or storing or stowing them in a dry, well-ventilated place. Any sheets which have become wet in transit should be wiped dry before storage. See also remarks under GALVANIZED WIRE.
GALVANIZED WIRE Cold drawn wire can be cleaned and then coated by dipping into a bath of molten zinc spelter, or by electro galvanizing methods, or by a fused in alloy method. An inadequate percentage of alloys in manufacture can be a cause of discoloration and oxidation. Oxidation (rust) may also be due to abrasion in handling or transportation, causing the wire to rub and wear the protective coating, which, when exposed to the atmosphere or to periods of precipitation due to changes in temperature with high humidity, will cause oxidation. Electrolytic action occurs wherever two dissimilar metals are exposed to an acid i.e. salty, atmosphere. etc., and in the case under consideration the slightest break in the continuity of the zinc coating serves to bring together all the elements needed for electrolysis to take place. Such electrolytic action causes oxidation of the iron and also accounts for the presence of sodium chloride if found on analysis. Good outturn depends a great deal on how wire is prepared for export. Open roll packing is often employed, and shipment from the mill to seaboard is often made in open vehicles; storage at shipping point and at the arrival point of the wire may be in open areas, or open trucks may be used for haulage at the port of destination. In such cases the wire is subjected to the elements and to changes of climate, such conditions being conducive to rust. Discoloration and oxidation are often the result of abrasion and an exposure to the elements or to a moisture laden atmosphere, and the process is accelerated owing to temperature changes because of repeated cycles of heating and cooling of the mass, which causes water to condense on cooling and to evaporate on heating. There is also the electrolytic action as described above, which accounts for the presence of sodium chloride on chemical analysis. Seawater salts may be present, although there may be no evidence that wire has been in contact with salt water or subjected to salt water spray. The observed condition is the natural effect which is produced when ferrous metals that may be imperfectly coated with zinc spelter are exposed to salt air and normal climatic changes, which combine with abrasion to cause the coating to wear and oxidize. See also remarks under GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS.
GAMBIER (See Catechu)
GARLIC (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
GELATINE Powdered gelatine becomes hard and horny when wetted but can be utilized for the manufacture of glue. Sheet and powdered gelatine, when packed in drums, should be stored at a moderate temperature, i.e., not near a boiler room or engine room and not exposed to the direct heat of the sun. When packed in bags, it may lose weight under dry conditions. It is important to avoid exposure to moist air or contact with water. This will cause mold attack and lumpiness which would completely spoil edible and photographic gelatine for those purposes and leave a material of greatly reduced value as a source of glue. If prepared as a food product, is readily contaminated when exposed.
GILSONITE (See Asphaltum). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
GINGER (Dry) (See Roots)
GINGER (Fresh) (See Roots)
GINGER (in syrup) A semi-liquid mixture of ginger root and syrup. Packed in small fancy earthenware jars, but more generally in stout pine casks which absorb some of the syrup so that there may be a loss on net out turn. This is usually allowed for in the filling. Casks require care in the stowage, and should be well bedded on dunnage and well tommed off. On account of possible leakage, they should be stowed clear of other sensitive cargoes. and in bottom tiers where drainage can be run clear. Leakage from casks usually involves only the syrup, which is of far less value than the ginger itself, but if the ginger is not immersed it will deteriorate in quality.
GLASS SHEETS Breakage can be avoided by ensuring that, where the sizes of the sheets are large, the crates or cases are stiffened sufficiently so as not to bend slightly when being handled or slung. Care should also be taken to see that the sheets of glass are properly chocked off in the cases or crates, as any negligence in this respect may result in damage to the sheets. Large sheets should be slung and handled on their edges. In all circumstances, to avoid breakage, packages of glass should be kept in the upright position and never allowed to lie on the flat A common form of damage to glass is staining, and a frequent cause is either dampness in the packing when shipped or dampness which has been absorbed by the packing during course of transit. There are various methods by which these stains may be removed. One suggestion is that the glass be polished with red iron oxide. Another suggestion is that a suspension of precipitated chalk in 2% solution of ammonia be rubbed on the glass, the glass finally being cleared by rubbing with a 5% solution of chromic acid. It is suggested that this latter treatment should be confined to figured glass. It is also suggested that buffing might offer some improvement if used for figured glass, provided that a very soft cloth buff is used which will penetrate the grooves in the pattern. Some improvement could, however, be obtained as a general rule by scrubbing the surface with a fairly hard brush, the brush being dipped in a solution of acetic acid. For commercial purposes a good vinegar would be quite satisfactory. The acetic acid or vinegar will dissolve the small amounts of lime and soda which hold the silica fairly firmly on the surface of the glass, and, provided the staining has not gone too far, will effect a considerable improvement in the appearance. The treatment of rolled figured glass or window glass with hydrofluoric acid, as a means of removing stain, is certainly not recommended. The hydrofluoric acid will dissolve the stain material, which is mainly silica, but it will tend to produce a light gray etching over the whole surface. The grayness will depend on the exact composition of the glass, on the strength of the hydrofluoric acid, and on the length of time during which the hydrofluoric acid is in contact with the glass surface. The process is dangerous, because even very dilute hydrofluoric acid can cause severe injury to the skin; also, unless the process is very carefully controlled, the etching can produce a sufficiently noticeable gray for the condition of the glass to be worse than at first, except perhaps that the gray might be more uniform over the whole surface. The following have been recommended by experts as the most satisfactory methods of dealing with staining: Figured class - Stains caused by water or dampness, provided the attack on the glass is not too severe, may be removed by treatment with a hot detergent solution. Plate glass - Certain manufacturers consider that the only satisfactory method of removing stains from plate glass is by repolishing with rouge or cerium oxide. This is preferably done on a special machine, but may also be done by hand. Sheet glass - The expense of repolishing is usually not justified in the case of sheet glass, but it may be treated in the same manner as recommended for figured glass, provided again that the attack on the glass is not too severe. Optical goods - Mold formation may result in glass being etched as if it had suffered from scratching. If doubt exists as to cause of scratching an expert's opinion should be sought.
GLAUBER SALTS Exposure to air may result in the salts turning into a white powder with consequent depreciation.
GLUE STOCK Product of the slaughterhouse. Used in the manufacture of glue. Absorbs moisture and if not properly dried may putrefy.
GLUTEN (Gluten Feed) Obtained from flour after the starch has been extracted. Affected by humidity.
GLYCERINE DISTILLED - Should not be exposed to the air for any length of time as it tends to absorb dampness, resulting in the reduction in the percentage of glycerol. If affected in this manner, redistillation of the glycerin is necessary to restore the product. RAW - Is not subject to damage by exposure to air be for a very lengthy period. Distillation is necessary in any event, so that no extra expense is incurred as a result of the exposure. (See also IMDG Code & US CFR.)
GOAT HAIR Liable to heat and affected by moisture. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
GOATSKINS (See Hides and Skins)
GRAIN (Barley, Maize, Oats, Sorghum, Wheat) Grain is liable to damage by heating, infestation, sweat and contact with water. When grain gets wet, growth immediately starts not only in the grain itself, but in the mold spores, yeast cells and bacteria, which are always present, causing respectively germination, fermentation and putrefaction. Treatment for water damage is somewhat theoretical for the reason that obstruction to its practical application is the necessity to apply treatment before deterioration sets in, and this is usually impossible, but when the condition of the grain is such that the cost of drying would be justified by the result, this is the only manner in which damage of this nature can be minimized. Contamination by water may cause heating and deterioration of the grain but such heating may also be due to inherent vice, particularly if the grain is too green when shipped. Grain may also be subject to an increase in weight if the conditions of stowage, storage, etc., are such that grain shipped dry can absorb moisture. Infestation can arise in a vessel having carried infested cargo on a previous voyage, but it can also be inherent in the grain itself. During growth, the egg of the weevil may be deposited and sealed in the grain so that fumigation does not affect any unhatched eggs. Lack of ventilation, causing high temperatures in the stowage will produce infestation which was not apparent at the time of loading. Weevil in such grain may cause some loss of weight, although it is not possible to determine a general percentage. Weevil impairs the quality, especially in the case of maize used for the manufacture of breakfast cereals. Heating can be caused in dry materials solely due to the activity of insects and not in any way connected with water damage. As a result of the feeding of the insects, together with their breathing in of oxygen from the air, the gas carbon dioxide and water vapor pass out into the air. In the process heat is produced and the temperature of the commodity rises. This may sometimes be noted in bulk grain where a "hot spot" occurs as the result of insect attack. The higher the temperature the more active are the insects in breaking down the food material into carbon dioxide and water vapor and more heat is produced. This may continue until the temperature reached is harmful to the insects and they move outwards from the "hot spot" to form others around the first. Thus the damage and the heating become widespread in the commodity. So far as insects are concerned, this is intimately connected with heating. When heating within a bulk of a commodity takes place, due to insect activity, this causes air convection currents which carry water vapor upwards from the hot spot. This condenses in the cooler surface layer, thus raising its moisture content. This process may be carried far enough to cause the growth of molds and bacteria and, in the case of grain, to cause sprouting. This type of water damage is essentially a surface phenomenon and is confined to the top few inches of a stack or bulk. Delay in transit may of itself give rise to heating and so cause the grain to have the appearance of damage arising out of insufficient ventilation, but this condition may have arisen entirely as a result of delay, even though the ventilation requirements have been perfectly satisfactory and not restricted during the voyage. Grain in process of fermenting may give the appearance of having been in contact with oil, especially by reason of the odor. Damaged grain should be disposed of as quickly as possible to avoid further deterioration. A simple test for loss of germination is to place a handful of grain into a glass of water; the sound grain will remain on top and the remainder settle at the bottom of the glass.
GRAIN (Barley, Maize, Oats, Sorghum, Wheat) BARLEY - Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a type of cereal belonging to the grass family (Gramineae), the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). Barley is grown mainly in the summer, but also in the winter. Barley ears have awns some 15 cm in length growing from them. After harvesting, barley usually undergoes further post-ripening, which consists of the high molecular weight substances congregating further with water being expelled (syneresis). As the surface of the cereal then becomes damp because of the elevated water content, this is described as "sweating". In this state, the cereal is highly susceptible to mold and must not as yet be shipped. However, if the water content of the cereal is relatively low (approx. 13 - 14%), proper storage allows the sweat moisture to be absorbed by the air without the risk of mold growth. This sweating process proceeds for a period of approximately 1 - 2 months. Grain size: diameter 1 mm, length 8 mm Oil content: approx. 2.0%.
GRAIN (Barley, Maize, Oats, Sorghum, Wheat) OATS - The oat plant (Avena sativa) is a type of cereal belonging to the grass family (Gramineae), the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). After harvesting, oats usually undergo further post-ripening, which consists of the high molecular weight substances congregating further with water being expelled (syneresis). As the surface of the cereal then becomes damp because of the elevated water content, this is described as "sweating". In this state, the cereal is highly susceptible to mold and must not as yet be shipped. However, if the water content of the cereal is relatively low (approx. 13 - 14%), proper storage allows the sweat moisture to be absorbed by the air without the risk of mold growth. This sweating process proceeds for a period of approximately 1 - 2 months. A distinction is drawn between the following types of oats: - Seed oats - Bearded or slender oats - Short oats Grain size: diameter 2 mm, length 10 mm Oil content: approx. 4.8%.
GRAIN (Barley, Maize, Oats, Sorghum, Wheat) GREEN CORN - Subject to heating, which may result in discoloration, toughening, drying out of the husk and shriveling of the corn. Attack by worm at the tip of the corn does not destroy the food value of the corn unless it is extended to the kernels themselves.
GRAIN (Barley, Maize, Oats, Sorghum, Wheat) WHEAT - Wheat is a type of cereal belonging to the grass family (Gramineae), the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). Today, wheat is the most important type of grain, with winter wheat being predominant. After harvesting, wheat usually undergoes further post-ripening, which consists of the high molecular weight substances congregating further with water being expelled (syneresis). As the surface of the cereal then becomes damp because of the elevated water content, this is described as "sweating". In this state, the cereal is highly susceptible to mold and must not as yet be shipped. However, if the water content of the cereal is relatively low (approx. 13 - 14%), proper storage allows the sweat moisture to be absorbed by the air without the risk of mold growth. This sweating process proceeds for a period of approximately 1 - 2 months. Grain size: diameter 2 mm, length 5 mm Oil content: 1.9 - 2%
GRAIN REFUSE An animal feed obtained from the residue of milled cereals after sifting. Liable to damage by humidity. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
GRAM (Chick Pea) An animal feed. Liable to heat.
GRAMOPHONE RECORDS Subject to warping, which has frequently been found due to the records being packed in strapped cartons, the strapping having been pulled too tight when sealing. Heat during transit may also cause distortion of the records.
GRAPHITE (Plumbago, Black lead) Used in the manufacture of lead pencils , paint pigments, Lubricants and molded parts. May be subject to a loss in weight due to seepage from the containers. If shipped damp consequent loss in weight will increase.
GRAY CLOTH (See Cotton Goods) GROUNDNUTS (See Oilseeds)
GUANO A organic fertilizer with a high content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and a moderate proportion of potash. Bagged guano should be stowed in such a manner as to prevent it from coming into contact with moisture. The nitrate and salts content of this substance is affected by rain or fresh water. Guano contains about 15% moisture and is subject to a natural loss of weight.
GUINEA PEPPER (See Capsicums)
GUMS Some gums are liable to damage by heat, in which case the damaged portion should be separated as promptly as possible from any sound remaining. Foreign matter, dirt, dust, etc., is liable to adhere to gums unless properly protected. Gums are subject to a natural loss in weight due to chafing and seepage, which may be aggravated by poor packing.
GUMS BALATA - A gum, similar to rubber, used for insulation, water proofing purposes, etc. Should be kept in a cool, dry place and not allowed to come into contact with moisture.
GUMS BENZOIN (Benjamin) - A hard gum-resin from the Far East. Used in the manufacture of perfume and medicinal preparations. Has the appearance of "crumbled stones" in pieces of various sizes, the largest being the most valuable. Is brittle, and rough handling breaks pieces, causing depreciation. When fresh is of a light brown color, becoming brown-red when old. The value increases with age. If melting occurs, the pieces stick together and the commodity then has the same value as Benzoin dust. Bags of Benzoin submitted to heat and pressure stick together, quickly causing depreciation. The quality is not impaired by wetting or dampness, but dust or other foreign matter sticks to Benzoin and causes depreciation, as it then has to undergo a long and costly cleansing and sorting. Loss in weight should not occur when the Benzoin is packed in metal cases, but when packed in ordinary wooden cases or wooden barrels loss may occur.
GUMS GUM ARABIC (Acacia Gum) - Contact with water will render the gum blocky which, if slight. may be reconditioned. If damage severe, general reconditioning is necessary.
GUMS LOBA DUST - A type of Gum Copal. When shipped should be properly dry, as this commodity is said to be liable to spontaneous combustion. Dust consisting of lumps of honey-combed pieces gives indication that internal combustion has taken place. Subject to a loss in weight due to chafing and seepage through packaging.
GUNNIES Contamination by water will cause the bags to deteriorate. Sometimes iron hoops, if rusted, will burst as a result of the swelling of the bales due to absorption of water. Care must be taken in any analysis to determine whether or not the damage has been caused by salt or fresh water, for the reason that the gunnies may have absorbed a certain amount of salt at the place of shipment. Gunnies packed by mills in a wet condition may arrive in varying stages of rottenness depending on the voyage. Wetted gunnies should be immediately opened up and dried to avoid rotting.
GUR (See Jaggery)
GUTTA PERGIA Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying.
HAIR (See Horse Hair and Mohair). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HALFA (See Alfa)
HARDWOOD Discoloration, provided this has not penetrated too deeply, can be planed out; this will result in reduction in thickness, but the timber remaining will be sound. See also TIMBER.
HARICOT BEANS (See Beans, Dried)
HAY (See Alfalfa and Lucerne Hay). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HEMP (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HEMPSEED OIL Hempseed oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from hemp seeds by pressing or extraction. It is a brownish yellow, greenish yellow or dark green oil with has a flowery odor and a pleasant taste. It is used in paints and varnishes.
HENBANE A herb used for medicinal purposes. Should be kept dry and away from oily or odorous goods.
HERRING OIL Herring oil is an oil obtained from the fatty tissue of fish of the herring type by boiling extraction. It has a characteristic odor and taste.
HERRINGS (See Fish)
HESSIAN CLOTH Bales of Hessian cloth having internal yellow stains may have the appearance of contamination by salt water, but these stains may be due to the thread used in the manufacture, which, although of good quality, left patches of deep yellow color, without in any way affecting the quality of the cloth.
HIDES AND SKINS Any animal hide or skin is of fibrous texture and from the moment of slaughter is liable to decomposition due to bacterial action. This decomposition is only completely stopped when the hide or skin is tanned, but the hide or skin can be temporarily preserved by salting and/or drying. Hides are therefore shipped as Wet Salted, Dry Salted and Dry. These methods of preservation are effective for fairly long periods, provided that the curing or drying has been satisfactorily carried out, and provided that the conditions of storage and transit have not caused the curing or drying to become ineffective. Climatic conditions at the time of preparation of skins may have some bearing upon the condition and appearance at destination, e.g. skins which have been salted and dried in the heat of the summer may tend to become somewhat over dried and although not damaged are liable to be broken or torn if roughly handled. Salted skins once having been wetted will readily absorb moisture from the atmosphere. This may on occasions give rise to a wrong impression as to the length of time which has elapsed since the wetting. Heating - Wet salted hides are liable to decompose through heating if they have not been adequately salted or if they are exposed to high temperatures in stowage or to a fairly high temperature over a fairly long period. Hides may be lightly cured to preserve them for a comparatively short period, or more thoroughly cured when they are needed to be transported over long distances. When hides have been in store under salt for a long period they have a stale appearance, and if deterioration has started to set in, the first indication will be looseness of the hair or "hair slip." In advanced cases this would be accompanied by a smell of ammonia and obvious signs of decomposition. Hides which are already stale when shipped will lack much resistance to adverse conditions during transit, and may deteriorate when well-cured fresh hides would not be affected. This condition of "hair slip" may also arise in hides which have been subjected to heating, as the looseness of the hair is brought about by bacterial action. Red stains on the flesh side of the hides ("red heat") are also an indication of heating; in early stages this need not signify damage, but in more advanced stages will be accompanied by other signs of damage. When hides are seriously heated, the fibrous structure of the pelt will have been destroyed, with serious results. This "red heat" may also be found in dry salted hides and skins, but in this case it will usually be seen that such hides or skins have been wetted or have been very damp at some time. It is the result of the action of a salt-loving bacteria, and as bacteria thrive at the expense of the hide substance, the hide substance is being progressively broken down. Contact with iron or copper can be most detrimental.
HIDES AND SKINS Infestation - Inferior quality hides are liable to develop holes due to a skin defect, and care should be taken not to attribute this holing to the use of hooks or other fortuitous cause. The skins concerned are usually those with a rough surface, and careful examination of the holes will make it comparatively easy to determine whether this has arisen through use of hooks or other fortuity, or whether it is a defect in the skin itself. When the hole is due to a defect, the surface immediately surrounding the hole is not usually as smooth as the remainder of the hide or skin. The skin may also suffer from blemishes which may eventually result in further holes. These holes and blemishes are usually accepted in the trade as being defects of the hide or skin itself. Treatment - Where damage is not severe enough to warrant goods being classed as useless, damaged skins should be put into work immediately; discarded skins may be sold for glue manufacture. Unless water damaged hides are dealt with promptly, damage will be considerably aggravated as the result of bales being left unopened or stored, decay in the skins advancing rapidly if air has no access to them. Wetting - Hides and skins of all descriptions can be seriously damaged if they are wetted by fresh or salt water. The effects are more rapid on dry hides and skins than on those which have been salted, but the latter will become severely damaged if the wetting has been sufficient to remove much of the salt from the pelts. Any wetting allows bacteria to thrive to the detriment of the pelt, and the decomposition of the pelt will be accentuated if the wetting is accompanied by heating, which is particularly liable to occur in press-packed bales. Salted hides and skins may absorb a certain amount of moisture from the humidity of the atmosphere, but this does not constitute damage, and normally does not affect the skins. Dry hides and skins may absorb moisture to a limited extent if the atmosphere is very humid; a slight mold will form on the surface of the skin. This may not be harmful, but much will depend on the degree of moistening and the length of time the skins have been in this condition. Wetting prior to shipment or from sweat during the voyage may produce similar effects. If skins have been packed damp, a mildewed condition may exist, but this will clearly be of an internal character inside bales, as distinct from the effects produced by external wetting. Dry and dry salted hides and skins are not liable to sweat from inherent causes.
HIDES AND SKINS BASILS (TANNED SHEEP AND LAMBSKINS) - Usually satisfactory cargo. Liable to damage from wetting. Damp packing very rare.
HIDES AND SKINS RAW SHEEPSKINS AND LAMBSKINS - Australian, New Zealand, South African, South American. These are usually shade dried in abattoir conditions and shipped in press packed bales. The chief cause of damage is by wetting, but they can become heated and badly mildewed, or attacked by black mold, through damp packing. These skins are also subject to attack by worm or weevil which may be inherent or contracted during transit. Dry Salted - Indian. Usually well packed and prepared for shipment in press packed bales. Most likely cause of damage is from external wetting. May become mildewed internally if packed slightly damp under wet conditions. Dry Salted - Red Sea area. Most likely cause of damage is wetting from external causes. Dry Salted - South African (Cape), Australian, New Zealand, etc. Usually well prepared for shipment in bales. Chiefly subject to damage by water, but liable to absorb moisture during very humid conditions, which may be harmless but may give rise to red heat or black mold. Raw Hair - Dried - Arabian, Abyssinian, etc. These are usually well prepared for shipment in bales with protection against worm. They will deteriorate rapidly if wetted. Shade Dried - East and West African, etc. Usually well dried and prepared for shipment. Liable to heavy damage from wetting. Slight damage may cause considerable mildew. Mildew may also result from damp packing. Liable to worm damage. Wet Salted - Indian. Packed in casks. Are liable to heavy damage from exposure to heat and heating. Similar troubles can arise from improper salting before packing.
HIDES AND SKINS GOATSKINS: Dry Salted - Mostly Indian. Usually well packed and prepared for shipment in press packed bales. Most likely cause of damage is from external wetting. May become mildewed internally if packed slightly damp under wet conditions. Shade Dried - East and West African, etc. Usually well dried and prepared for shipment. Liable to heavy damage from wetting. Slight wetting may cause considerable mildew. Mildew may also result from damp packing. Liable to worm damage. Wet Salted - Mostly Indian. Packed in casks. Are liable to heavy damage from exposure to heat and heating. Similar troubles arise from improper salting before packing.
HIDES AND SKINS PARCHMENT AND VELLUM - These are highly specialized manufactured products. Quantities are small and are usually packed with great care. Can be completely ruined by wetting.
HIDES AND SKINS RABBIT SKINS - Improper curing can cause mold damage which is easily mistaken for damage due to contact with water or sweating in transit.
HIDES AND SKINS RAW CALFSKINS - These are shipped dry, dry salted and wet salted. The same conditions apply as above, except that the wet salted skins are usually shipped in casks.
HIDES AND SKINS RAW HIDES: Dry Salted - Usually carry well, but can be damaged by wetting. Sometimes absorb moisture during very humid weather, but this dampness may not result in damage. Shade Dried - African, Abyssinian, Indian, etc. Can deteriorate quickly after wetting by fresh or seawater. Damping by rain before shipment may result in heavy mildew on bales or hides, not to be confused with similar mildew which may result from insufficient drying before packing. Liable to attack by worms or weevil which may be inherent or contracted in transit. Sun Dried - Similar to above, usually commoner types. May suffer damage from incorrect drying in too great heat. Wet Salted - Australian, New Zealand, and South American. Can be damaged by wetting due to loss of salt content. Chief danger is from heating usually resulting from exposure to heat, faulty stowage, inadequate ventilation, or delays in transit. Damage may result from insufficient salting.
HIDES AND SKINS SHEEPSKINS AND GOATSKINS, EAST INDIA TANNED HIDES - Usually most satisfactory cargo, but can be severely damaged by wetting and subsequent heating. May be packed damp during monsoon conditions, resulting in mildewed condition inside bales.
HIDES AND SKINS SHEEPSKINS AND GOATSKINS, SEMI-TANNED - Tend to deteriorate more rapidly after wetting. Contain salts used in manufacture which may attract moisture in very humid conditions.
HOME ENTERTAINMENT EQUIPMENT Home entertainment equipment is the name given to electronic equipment for receiving, recording and/or reproducing analog or digital sound and image signals. Home entertainment equipment includes, for example, radios/tuners, amplifiers, receivers, loudspeakers, portable audio equipment, televisions, projectors, video recorders, record players, MD (mini-disc) players, cassette recorders, DAT recorders, CD (compact disc) and DVD (digital versatile disc) players etc.
HONEY If water enters the casks it will spoil the quality and sour the contents in closest contact with it. The balance should remain sound. Honey in casks may be subject to natural loss in weight due to seepage or absorption of the honey by the packing. Will solidify if kept cool, and any impurities will rise to the surface.
HOOF MEAL Moisture content between 8% and 10%. Excessive moisture tends to make this product cake and deteriorate in quality.
HOOVES (See Horns and Hooves)
HOPS This commodity is liable to suffer very serious damage by mildew or mold, especially in conditions of tropical humidity, unless packed in airtight containers. It is important that delay between the time of discharge from the carrying vessel and delivery to the receivers' premises should be reduced to a minimum.
HORN SHAVINGS AND TIPS The natural loss in weight varies. Excessive humidity should not be harmful. Even after having been immersed in fresh or seawater, they should, if properly dried out afterwards, be in a good condition and not suffer any great loss in value. However, if the horn shavings and tips are not shipped clean, there is always the danger of their becoming infested with mites.
HORNS AND HOOVES If exported with a content of bone or flesh, they may be attacked by mites which eat even the hooves. Horns should be without pith on the inside portion of the horns where mites thrive. All horns and hooves should be properly fumigated prior to shipment. Subject to natural loss in weight due to drying.
HORSE BEANS (See Beans, Dried). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HORSE HAIR Subject to a natural loss in weight. Argentine dressed horse hair has a natural moisture content varying between 6% and 10% according to the season in which it is packed. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HORSE SHOES (See Scrap Metal)
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES Household appliances are essentially divided into the following types: - small electrical appliances, e.g.: microwave ovens, coffee- and tea-makers, kettles, toasters, hand mixers, deep fryers, electric knives, vacuum cleaners, hair-dryers, electric razors, irons etc. - large electrical appliances, e.g.: dishwashers, cooking stoves, washing machines, refrigerators and freezers, clothes dryers - air-conditioning appliances, e.g.: heaters, fans, humidifiers.
HOUSEHOLD EFFECTS (See Furniture and Household Effects). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
HYDRO-SULPHITE OF SODA Decomposes on exposure to air. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE When mixed with organic substances, explosions are liable to occur. When rapidly heated it may decompose suddenly. It is affected by light and should therefore be kept in tight, light resistant containers at a temperature not above 35 degrees C / 95 degrees F. When there is insufficient ullage in the bottles excessive heat will blow off the corks and caps. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
ICELAND SPAR (Calcite, Calc-Spar) A glassy mineral used in the construction of polarizing instruments. When intended for optical use, surface scratches preclude its use in this field but it may be used chemically as a very pure calcium carbonate.
ILMENITE (Amang Ore) A mineral from which titanium is derived and used in the manufacture of paints and for hardening steels. See ORES.
INDIAN MADDER (Munjeet) A plant utilized in the dyeing industry. Absorbs moisture and deteriorates quickly when damp. Subject to a natural loss or gain in weight.
INFUSORIAL EARTH (See Kieselguhr)
INODOROUS FELT A type of felt manufactured from vegetable fibers. Liable to spontaneous combustion. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
INSULATION BOARDS Where breakage of corners or chafing occurs. may be trimmed and an allowance agreed on trimmed quantity.
IODINE Readily vaporizes and if the container is not well sealed or is fractured, considerable or complete loss may result. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS Subject to rapid rusting if wetted and exposed to air. In the event of steel products being totally immersed in water, arrangements should be made, if practicable, to allow them to remain under water until they can have immediate treatment when recovered. If they are treated immediately after immersion with one of the many dewatering oils or drying fluids on the market, rusting, which would normally arise out of the immersion, can be avoided. In the case of rust having developed before treatment is possible, this should be removed and the articles protected from further rusting by the application of a rust remover and neutralizer. Steel products usually have a thin coating of oil or grease on them after manufacture, to prevent rusting. Steels which have the oil removed by exposure or other means may rust and they may also contain mill scale during manufacture. The customary procedure before finishing such steels is to degrease them. After degreasing, if there is rust or mill scale present, it is necessary either to pickle it or to clean it by sand or shot blasting. There are two main pickling processes: (1) Sulphuric acid, which usually contains an inhibitor which assists in removing the rust without the steel being greatly attacked. This type of pickle is used hot. (2) Hydrochloric acid (spirits of salt) is also used, and this is used cold. After pickling the steel becomes very prone to rusting, and it must either be re-oiled immediately before fabrication, or, if pickling has been carried out after fabrication, it must be immediately finished. The finishing processes are very great in number, the simplest being to give the steel a prime paint coat and finish with final coats of paint, lacquers or enamels at some later stage. Another process is to treat the freshly pickled steel with a rust proofing product, which requires hot immersion or spray treatment with patented chemicals and produces a zinc phosphate or similar type of coating. See also under individual product headings.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS - These occasionally show signs of corrugation either at destination or some time after arrival at destination where they are intended for the production of flat table tops and kitchen sinks. When such damage exists without evidence of a fortuitous cause (e.g. crates undamaged) the damage may be due to the sheets not being properly treated prior to leaving the manufacturers' works and may be attributed to improper stress relieving, annealing or a combination of all causes.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS A distinction is also drawn between the following types: - Black plate (black iron sheet): hot-rolled, nondescaled sheet for second grade applications placing no particular demands on surface quality. - Galvanized sheet: steel sheet with a zinc coating. The coating increases the utility value of the sheet. In order to improve the durability of the zinc coating, hot-dip galvanized sheets are reheated once more to approx. 600 degrees C. - Corrugated sheet: corrugated rectangular sheets produced by rolling. Their utility value is increased by subsequent galvanization. - Electric steel sheet: thin steel sheet alloyed with silicon with special magnetic properties. - Tinplate: steel sheet coated with tin. - Terne plate: steel sheet with a lead-tin coating. - Stainless steel sheet (high-grade sheet): steel sheet made from alloy and nonalloy steel of high purity which is consequently nonrusting or resistant to heat or chemicals.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS STEEL PROFILES - Steel profiles are steel products which have been rolled, drawn or pressed into a shape which is of the same cross-section over its entire length. Steel profiles are classed as follows: - Concrete reinforcement steel is the name for smooth, profiled and ribbed round steel bars (structural steel bars/concrete reinforcement bars) which have elevated tensile strength and are used for strengthening reinforced concrete structures or components or for producing steel mesh for reinforced concrete structures (welded wire mesh). - Prestressed concrete reinforcement steel (smooth, ribbed, profiled round steel bars) is used for prestressed concrete structures and is far stronger than concrete reinforcement steel. - Large profiles (steel shapes): - I profiles (double T beams) - H profiles (wide flange beams) - U profiles, T profiles - Angle steel (equal or unequal) - Special profiles (nonstandard shapes) - Round and rectangular bars or profiles (e.g. rectangular steel rod profiles, flat steel).
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS STEEL - Metal sheets are flat products with a rectangular cross-section, the width of which is much larger than the thickness. A distinction is drawn between hot- and cold-rolled sheet. Hot-rolled sheet in sheets is produced from semifinished products (slabs or billets), which are reduced to certain thicknesses by rolling and annealing and cut mechanically or by burning into rectangular or also other shaped sheets. Cold-rolled steel is produced by removing rust from hot-rolled sheet by "pickling" it in a weak acid solution, then washing, brushing, drying, oiling and unrolling the sheet and finally performing cold-rolling by passing the sheet through a reducing mill and cutting into rectangular or also other shaped sheets. Cold-rolled steel is a more highly finished product and has a smoother surface, greater dimensional accuracy (thickness, width, length) and greater strength. Depending upon the material from which it is made, metal sheet is divided into the following groups: - Sheet made from carbon steels. - Sheet made from alloy steels. - Sheet made from nonferrous metals and their alloys. - Bimetallic plated sheet, i.e. sheet produced by bonding together two different metals. - Sheet with protective coatings, for example PVC or PE coated sheet or galvanized, tinned sheet.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS STEEL PIPES - Pipes are long hollow articles of various cross-sectional shapes supplied as straight lengths or in coils. They are produced by casting, rolling, pressing, drawing, electrolysis or by welding and subsequent curling of strip metal. Metal pipes may also be subdivided into seamless, butt-welded and welded pipes.
IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS STEEL SHEET IN COILS - Metal sheets in coil form are flat products wound into rolls and having a rectangular cross-section, the width of which is much larger than the thickness. A distinction is drawn between hot- and cold-rolled sheet. Hot-rolled sheet in coil form is produced from semifinished products (slabs or billets), which are reduced to certain thicknesses by rolling and annealing and wound into a roll. Cold-rolled sheet in coil form is produced by removing rust from hot-rolled sheet by "pickling" it in a weak acid solution, then washing, brushing, drying, oiling and unrolling the sheet and finally performing cold-rolling by passing the sheet through a reducing mill under pressure and winding it into a roll. Cold-rolled steel is a more highly finished product and has a smoother surface, greater dimensional accuracy (thickness, width, length) and greater strength.
IRON ORE (See Ores)
IRON OXIDE When wet by fresh or salt water it is necessary to dry it, after which it recovers its original properties. See IMO-BC Code Class 4.2 Cargo.
IRON, SCRAP, etc. (See Scrap Metal). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
ITALIAN PASTAS Salt is frequently used in the preparation of these commodities, and therefore in the case of damage by wetting care should be exercised in attributing the cause. Subject to loss by breakage and infestation.
JAGGERY (Gur) A form of sugar obtained from certain palm trees. Liquefies when subject to high temperatures. Very syrupy; requires efficient separation. Subject to loss in weight.
JELUTONG A form of gutta-percha, of a lower grade, from the Malayan Archipelago, exported in considerable quantities for the manufacture of chewing gums. Of a grayish-white color, it is generally formed into flat slabs which are usually packed into bags or wooden cases, and as jelutong has certain objectionable qualities, these packings are often rotted before discharge. Jelutong has a relatively high moisture content and is subject to considerable loss of weight, which can occur in a very short time; particular attention should be paid to stowage and storage. Jelutong should not be stowed close to any delicate goods, including rubber, which will become moldy. Liable to loss through drainage if subjected to high temperatures.
JUTE FIBER (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
KAINITE A low grade potash, used as a fertilizer, which may contain a large quantity of common salt. Hygroscopic, and liable to a natural loss in weight, but a very stable and hard mineral in its pure rock form. In this state it is shipped without risk of damage. After calcination it is changed to "mullite" which can be ground screened and sized for shipment in sacks. When shipped in this form is subject to damage, contamination by water causing it to lose in strength but gain in weight. Wetting may also result in the formation of a solid mass that may give rise to difficulties in discharge. See remarks under FERTILIZERS, and also ORES.
KAMALA POWDER A powder obtained from an Indian tree. Used in medicinal preparations and in the dyeing industry. Affected by moisture.
KAPOK The Dutch name for a fiber obtained from trees grown in the East Indies and certain other regions. Generally used for upholstery, bedding purposes, and for stuffing lifejackets. If damaged by moisture or odors, the bales should immediately be opened and the contents dried, which should improve the quality and eliminate the smell. The kapok should then realize a higher price. Low-grade kapok may contain sweepings and rotten fibers, and occasionally may be mixed with used kapok from old furniture upholstery. Kapok is easily ignited. Combustion is very slow and without flame. When combustion is sufficient, the intensity of the heat bursts the bale and blazing kapok may be strewn over other kapok bales. Spontaneous combustion is unusual. Dampness or wetting may cause a musty smell, but this disappears when dried. Kapok is the fine, silkily lustrous fruit fibers from the fruit walls of the capsules, 10 - 20 cm in length and 3 cm in thickness, of the kapok tree. Originally native to South America, it is now to be found in all tropical countries. Growing to a height of 50 m, kapok trees are among the tallest of tropical rain forest trees. The kapok hairs, 10 - 35 mm in length, which are plant hairs, are brittle and only spinnable when blended with cotton. The fibers are thermally insulating and water-repellent. Kapok fibers may be white, light gray, yellowish to brown and lustrous. They are also known as ceiba or Java cotton.
KAPOK OILS Kapok oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from the seeds of the kapok tree. It is a yellow oil with a pleasant, mild odor and taste. Kapok oil is the most sensitive of all the vegetable oils. It has similar characteristics to cottonseed oil.
KAPOK KAPOK GRAINS - Humidity which causes mustiness must be avoided. In case of wetting should be dried immediately, as otherwise the grain ferments and bursts. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
KASHRANGEIG (See Beans, Dried)
KATHA (See Catechu)
KERNELS (See Nuts and Kernels)
KIESELGUHR (Infusorial Earth) A siliceous infusorial earth used, among other things, in the manufacture of explosives. Damage during transport can be caused by the absorption of moisture. May absorb ten times its own weight of water. If intended for insulating purposes, the loss by impregnation is slight. On the other hand, if the product is intended for use in connection with explosives, the depreciation is variable and in some cases must be considered a total loss.
LACQUERED GOODS Scratching and chipping is sometimes found to be greater when each unit is individually packed, whereas better outturn has resulted from use of larger cases containing a greater number of units. See also FURNITURE and HOUSEHOLD GOODS.
LAMBSKINS (See Hides and Skins)
LARD (See Fats)
LATEX Apart from low temperatures causing rubber latex shipped in drums to be damaged, latex shipped in bulk may suffer similar damage during discharge if adequate measures are not taken against the effect of low temperatures. If brought into port at the time of the year when low temperatures prevail difficulty and extra expense in discharge may arise owing to coagulation.
LEAD Lead and its products do not depreciate in value from immersion in water - salt or fresh; any superficial staining or deposit can be easily removed by cleaning and polishing if necessary.
LEAD ORES (See Ores) (See also IMO-BC Code for lead and concentrates)
LEATHERWARE (General) MOLD GROWTH ON LEATHER - Leatherware may develop a formation of mildew if packed in a place where there is humidity. Mold growth on leather and leather goods is favored by dampness and moderate warmth. It will occur on leather stored only slightly damp in a confined space, or stored under conditions of high humidity. The mold may or may not be visible as a surface growth. Growth occurs on the water solubles and grease in the leather and so is dependent on the type of leather and nature of the tannage, vegetable-tanned leather being in general much more susceptible than chrome-tanned. The physical properties of leather (strength, hardness) are usually little affected unless mold growth is heavy and prolonged. Often such growth can be brushed off without leaving a trace, although sometimes indelible stains and discoloration are produced. Leather, dressed or undressed, however, will suffer loss of surface and life as a result of heavy and prolonged mold which may or may not be readily apparent. Leather having suffered in this way will suffer loss in appearance and quality and is easily torn. The mold may develop as the result of inherent moisture in the leather.
LEATHERWARE (General) BACTERIAL GROWTH ON LEATHER - Bacteria will not grow on properly tanned leather except in rare cases in conjunction with mold. If prolonged, serious loss of strength results.
LEATHERWARE (General) LEATHER, DRESSED (See also HIDES) - Most dressed leathers are well manufactured and shipped in good condition and well packed. Trouble may develop with patent leather and leathers with a plastic finish, as the finish may crack or become tacky, due to the type of finish used.
LEATHERWARE (General) CHROME SPLITS are packed damp, and rough damage can be considered in the nature of an unavoidable loss. If packed semi damp, warm temperature will dry out the commodity, which consequently loses weight, the percentage of which varies according to the length of the voyage. Burst bales, the contents being loose, dry out more rapidly and lose much weight.
LEATHERWARE (General) GLAZED SHEETS used for upholstery are apt to stick, due to heat, but the skins may be parted with little or no damage.
LEATHERWARE (General) LEATHER SHOES - As previously stated, certain leathers, both treated and untreated, have a certain degree of moisture content, and shoes which have been packed in apparent good order and condition may be delivered at destination with damage caused by staining with mildew or mold emanating from the leather itself. Such damage may be caused either by an excess of moisture in the leather used in the manufacture of the shoes or it may be that the shoes, after manufacture and before being packed for export, were stored in conditions which permitted absorption of moisture from the atmosphere which, in certain ports, is somewhat humid during certain periods of the year. In some cases mildew may be confined to the soles of the shoes, either on the inside or outside, or both; the unpacking of the sole of one of the specimens may show that the inside layers under the sole are manifestly damp. In other cases inside nails have been found to be rusted due to the action of the moisture on the leather. Another cause of mildew may be the moisture content of the packing above the leather; resin or cork, for instance, can possess a high degree of water content. Damage of this nature is more apparent in shoes of a lower grade. Another trouble which may arise through the natural moisture content of the leather, cork and wood from which shoes are made is the rusting of buckles, and care is necessary in attributing a cause in this connection.
LEATHERWARE (General) LEATHER, SOLE - Bends, Butts, Shoulders, etc. Usually satisfactory cargo. Will become damaged by wetting.
LEAVES (Medicinal, etc.) Subject to a natural loss in weight which will vary according to condition on shipment, conditions of storage, handling, stowage, and nature of the voyage. Loss may be enhanced by poor packing.
LEAVES (Medicinal, etc.) BUCHU LEAVES - Used primarily for medicinal purposes, the oil being extracted from the leaf. There are three grades, the short or round leaf, the oval leaf, and the long leaf. Exported in the leaf form in bales. Color and oil content adversely affected by contact with bright light and heat.
LEAVES (Medicinal, etc.) SENNA LEAVES AND PODS - The dried leaves and pods of various species of cassia. When senna leaves and pods become wetted they discolor rapidly, but although the wetting may have come from an external cause it may be more evident on the inner wrappers than the outer, by reason of the fact that the inner wrappers absorb the stain, which may not penetrate to the outer covering.
LECHE CASPI A substance used in the manufacture of chewing gum. Subject to sweating and loss in weight due to shrinkage. Heat will not damage the product but will increase the loss of weight.
LEMON JUICE When shipped in casks may be subject to loss in weight due to absorption of some of the liquid by the containers. See also FRUIT JUICES.
LEMONGRASS OIL Used in the manufacture of perfumes. May be subject to heavy loss due to denting and leakage unless packed in strong drums with rolling hoops. Standard quality of oil contains 75% to 77% citral. Rust inside drums will result in a loss of citral content. Long storage in steel or iron drums will also have the same result. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
LENTILS Subject to a natural loss in weight by drying out or by infestation by weevils. Liable to heat through humidity. Lentils are the seeds of the annual, herbaceous lentil plant, which is a member of the legume family (Leguminosae) originating from the Mediterranean, and are transported in dry form. Lentils are among the oldest cultivated plants. The pods of the lentil plant usually contain 1 - 2 seeds, which are round, flat and 3 - 9 mm in size.
LICORICE (LIQUORICE) ROOT (See Roots)
LICORICE EXTRACT SOLID Should be stored away from heat to prevent softening and running.
LINENFLAX Damage is usually caused by water, dampness, or other humidity. If moisture penetrates into the bales to any extent, the material becomes moldy, discolored, and the fiber deteriorates. The damaged part can as a rule be used for the spinning of inferior yarn, or as inferior stuffing (mattresses, etc.). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
LINOLEUM When heavy pressure is applied to a bale of linoleum internal damage may result without leaving external evidence of crushing. This happens because the inside laps being rolled on a smaller radius are naturally sharply curved and more quickly broken when that curve is further bent by crushing; the outside laps on the other hand will stand a fair amount of further bending before they reach the breaking point. If some types of Linoleum are stowed in warm or heated areas, layers of rolls tend to adhere and rolls of printed patterns often adhere to the underside of the overlapping layer. Cracking may be the result of the linoleum being exposed to conditions of extreme cold. Low temperatures have the effect of freezing the oils in the Linoleum and so cause cracking. Linoleum which has been subjected to low temperatures should be removed to a warm place as soon as possible.
LINSEED OIL Raw linseed oil, arriving in a condition as though mixed with water, and having an emulsified appearance resembling Carron Oil, is due to the oil, after manufacturing process, not having been permitted to stand long enough prior to being decanted into drums for shipping. A considerable quantity of solid vegetable matter in suspension may be present, but on being allowed to settle for a period of about two months, the solid matter will fall to the bottom bf the oil, which can then be run off. Solids in suspension frequently amount to 15% to 20% of the contents of the drum. The oil thickens on exposure to the air, darkening and acquiring a pronounced taste. Linseed oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from crushed flax seeds. It is a high-quality gold-yellow edible oil, which is slightly yellowish when bleached.
LINSEED OIL CAKE AND MEAL This commodity is usually packed in gunny bags and should be perfectly cool before shipment. Linseed oil cake and all oil cakes and oil cake meals have a tendency to heat naturally (inherent vice), as a result of processing, also as a result of exposure and wetting by rain, or through the addition of water at the time of processing to make weight. See also the IMO-BC Code under Seedcake.
LIQUORICE (LICORICE) ROOT (See Roots)
LIVER MEAL Product has a moisture content of between 8% and 10%. Excessive moisture tends to cake the meal, which deteriorates in quality. Absorbs moisture, and although bags may appear dry externally, meal sometimes becomes damp due to deliquescence. See also the IMO-BC Code under Seedcake. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
LOBA DUST (See Gums)
LOCUST BEANS (See Beans, Dried). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
LOOSE-LEAF BINDERS If certain types of hardboard situated between the outer and inner covers of the binders have a moisture content, this may give rise to the development of a certain type of mold resulting in a short space of time in the powdering of the hardboard and the rotting of the leather or the leather cloth external cover. The appearance of the cover may well lead to the conclusion that the outer cover has been wetted at some time, this usually being in a stained condition coincident with the dampness of the hard- board. When attributing a cause for such damage, care should be taken to determine whether the dampness came from an external cause.
LUBIA AFIN (See Beans, Dried). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
LUCERNE HAY (See Alfalfa). See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
MACARONI (See Italian Pastas)
MACASSAR OIL A vegetable oil produced from the seed of an Indian plant. Liable to deteriorate if containers become leaky.
MACE Mace is the red outer covering of the nutmeg which is dried and used as a spice. Excessive moisture may cause moldiness, which results in the commodity becoming blackened and offensive. Provided that the commodity has not been subjected to excessive moisture, molds and discoloration may be reduced or removed by exposure in thin layers to the air and sun. After drying the mace may have a lower grade value. If mace has been wetted and can be dried and handled within a reasonable time, there should be no loss of quality, but handling tends to break the mace and may alter its grade value. May be subject to a loss due to drying out. Mace is the dried, crimson-colored, lacy seed covering (aril) removed from the nutmeg, which is enclosed in a peach-like fruit. It comes from the Moluccas. Odor and taste are highly aromatic and spicy. Postharvest air-drying renders mace hornlike, brittle and waxy. In its commercial forms, mace is pressed flat and dried or ground. Oil content: essential oils: - 10.0 - 15.0% (in particular myristicin) - 4 - 12% - 12% fatty oils: - appro 30% - 20%
MACHINERY All waterproof-lined cases should have some means of ventilation to allow any evaporated moisture which may form in the case to escape; otherwise this moisture will attack the highly polished and delicate sections of the contents of the case. If a means of ventilation is not possible, desiccants (such as silica gel) should be enclosed in the case. When machines are bolted to the base of the cases, there should be some allowance for movement. It has been known for the timbers to swell, due to moisture, thus exerting, through the securing bolts, sufficient pressure to fracture the castings. Corrugated paper, used to line cases, has been known to mark enameled surface of machines. Note should be taken as to whether the bright or unpainted parts of machinery have been properly protected with rust preventative prior to shipment. Wooden battens which have not been properly dried or contain a high percentage of resinous matter, when used for packing machinery and placed directly against bright or painted metal surfaces, can cause discoloration of the paint and rusting of the metal. This type of damage can be confused with ordinary water damage. There are on the market special compounds for the protection against rust of various types of machinery and metallic components, and where complaint of rust damage to goods of metallic construction is received, prompt treatment by a dewatering oil or similar product will prevent the rust spreading. Generally speaking, the products referred to are basically an oil with a drying ingredient. If metallic goods have been submerged and are dried immediately or as soon as possible after removal from the water, and this compound applied, the oxidation or rusting of the product may be prevented or minimized. Timely action may do much to prevent aggravation of damage arising from delay and improper treatment.
MACKERAL (See Fish)
MADDER A red dye obtained from the root of the madder plant. Affected by humidity. See INDIAN MADDER.
MAGNESITE (Raw) Contact with water is unlikely to harm this commodity, as the tendency would be to wash away impurities.
MAGNESITE BRICKS (See Bricks, chrome magnesite)
MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE This chemical is sent forward in metal drums. If during the voyage the drums should sustain cracks or cuts the contents are liable to be damaged by the atmospheric dampness, even if the container does not come into contact with water. Strong drums are required for the carriage of this commodity. See also IMDG Code & 49 CFR.
MAIZE (See Grain)
MALACCA CANE (See Rattan and Malacca Cane)
MALANGAS A type of yam or potato. Subject to similar considerations as potatoes with regard to stowage, storage, etc. See VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) - POTATOES
MALTED BARLEY Contact with salt water will wet and ferment the malted barley, which may be rendered valueless.
MALTOSE POWDER (Refined) Is highly hygroscopic, readily absorbing and retaining moisture upon exposure, whereupon the powder deteriorates into a caramel- like substance with little or no salvage value except perhaps to bakers.
MANDIOC (Manioc Roots) (See Roots)
MANGANESE ORE - MANGANIFEROUS ORE (See Ores)
MANGROVE BARK (See Barks)
MANILLA HEMP (Abaca Fiber) (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MANIOC ROOT (Cassava Root, Mandioc) (See Roots)
MANJEET (Munjeet) (See Indian Madder)
MANNA A medicinal product liable to absorb moisture. Subject to natural loss in weight.
MARGARINE (See Fats)
MARJORAM A culinary herb liable to damage by heat and subject to natural loss or gain in weight.
MEAT Deterioration of beef and ham may be due to bone taint. This may be from an infection of the bone and not to fortuitous causes. This infection may also be responsible for the formation of slime on the surface.
MEAT Meat is graded into 4 quality classes: - 1st quality: e.g. rib roast (beef), rib and ham (pork), leg (veal), saddle and leg (lamb) - 2nd quality: e.g. central breast (beef), chine and breast (pork), saddle and chine (veal), shoulder (lamb) - 3rd quality: e.g. brisket and chine (beef), belly (pork), neck and belly (veal), neck and breast (lamb) - 4th quality: e.g. skirt (beef), head (pork), head (veal) The frozen meat must be properly deep frozen on loading. Meat which is not at the required core temperature will spoil during a long voyage. Checks must accordingly be carried out during loading. Properly deep frozen meat sounds like wood when struck. A wooden mallet may thus be used for performing many checks. The core temperature should be measured for each batch by drilling a hole into the middle of the piece of meat and measuring the temperature with a meat thermometer. Occasionally, meat is supplied which, after freezing, has been exposed to higher temperatures. Such incorrect storage results in depreciation. Such interim thawing can be recognized by the protective coverings' having frozen onto the meat. Distortion of the pieces of meat and dark muscle tissue color are further indications of incorrect handling. Due to an increased risk of decomposition, frozen meat must not exhibit the slightest trace of fresh blood.
MEAT CHILLED MEAT - Meat consists of skeletal muscle tissue, including fatty, connective and bone tissue, originating from slaughtered, skinned and gutted animals. Frequently transported types of meat are: cattle (quarters of beef), pigs (sides of pork), calves, sheep and lambs (all whole). Boned chilled meat (portioned meat) is also vacuum packaged for storage and transport. Chilled meat is also described as fresh meat because, when correctly chilled or frozen, it retains the characteristics of fresh meat. The greater or lesser degree of redness of meat is determined by its content of myoglobin (muscle pigment) which depends upon the species, breed, age and other factors. The chemical composition of meat is as follows: - water 49 - 75% - protein 15 - 21.5% - fat 3 - 35% - mineral salts 1 - 2% - carbohydrates (glycogen) 0.3 - 0.5% The rapid perishability of meat is due to its high protein and water content and its fat content. Since fresh meat may rapidly become unfit for consumption due to biochemical and microbiological changes, it is only transported as chilled or frozen meat. Degradation processes are retarded by maintaining low temperatures.
MEAT JERKED MEAT - is subject to inherent vice, which is aggravated by contact with heat. Damaged jerked meat in this condition will be found to be discolored, mildewed, emitting a foul odor and abounding with black weevils and larvae.
MEAT FROZEN MEAT -When left out of cold storage, thaws out and becomes bloody and dark in color. When the meat is re-frozen it retains this dark color. Meat in cold storage is subject to surface mold growth by certain fungi that can grow with appreciable rapidity, causing "black spot" and "whiskers" at certain temperatures. The addition of 10% carbon dioxide to the storage atmosphere is sometimes practiced in order to give additional control of mold growth. The more meat is subjected to variations of temperature the greater the possibility of discoloration due to dehydration. For example, meat may be in cold storage for long periods before shipment and during this time the cold chamber doors may be frequently opened. Discoloration arising from such causes should not necessarily be classified as damage, as the quality is most likely unaffected, the discoloration being merely a matter of condition.
MENTHOL Is slightly soluble in water. Melts between 41 degrees and 43 degrees C, or 106 degrees to 110 degrees F. Due to the fact that this commodity is extremely volatile the packing must be airtight. Menthol should be preserved preferably at a temperature not above 30 degrees C or 86 degrees F. When the temperature rises menthol turns into a vapor, which escapes from the tin and a part will condense on the outside of the container in the form of a thin sheet of menthol (sublimation). The escape of vapor may give rise to a loss in weight. When volatilized it cakes and may depreciate in value. Sound menthol may be tested by dropping an iron rod into the contents and when drawn up again the menthol should not stick to the rod. Weighing the tins is the only way to ascertain the shortage due to sublimation of the menthol.
MENTHOL CRYSTALS When stored at tropical temperatures will clog together. The process is one of "sintering," whereby the crystals, at temperatures approaching the melting point, reform themselves into a more compact state, without any actual liquefaction. Menthol and related compounds are particularly prone to this. On account of the low melting point of menthol, the effect will show itself even in temperate climates if the storage is prolonged. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MERCURIC SULPHIDE This is a form of mercury exported from India and is officially classified as "poison." Packed in 5-gallon steel drums. Cases have been known of spontaneous ignition of drums of this commodity through exposure to sun heat. Under deck stowage in a cool hold is advisable and safe if the drums have not previously been subjected to heat. See also IMDG Code.
METAL CUTTINGS Liable to spontaneous combustion due to the usual presence of quantities of oil. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
METAL WARES Rust damage can arise from the nature of the paper used in wrapping or separating the articles in the cases in which they were packed. Certain papers contain various salts and in one case rusting, at first believed to be due to contact with salt water, was found upon analysis of the wrapping paper to be due to salts consisting of aluminium, calcium, potassium, and sulphates being present in the paper. A test of the paper showed that it burned with some difficulty owing to the presence of these salts. See also under individual headings.
METALS (See under individual headings)
METHYL BROMIDE This liquid is usually packed in small metal cans, and sometimes claims are put forward for leakage when the containers would appear, at first glance, to be in good condition. As methyl bromide is highly volatile and canned under pressure, it is quite possible that the loss of contents may have been occasioned by seepage or by evaporation taking place through the fine interstices present in the solder used to seal the seams of the cans. See also IMDG Code.
MICA Must be protected against damage by salt water, as saline destroys the insulating properties of the mica. Is widely used as an insulating material, as it is virtually impervious to heat. The cases in which mica in any form is packed should be of sound construction and lined with good quality paper. It is most essential that the wood used in building the cases should be well seasoned, dry and free from stains or traces of mildew, as, during ocean voyages, with great variations in climatic conditions, case planks may develop heavy mildew, inside and out. Some damage to the contents, mostly at the top and bottom inside surfaces, accompanied by decomposition of the paper linings, may result. This mildewed condition is found on the top and bottom surfaces of the cases where they have been in contact with each other in stowage or storage, and no air circulation has been possible, due to the absence of cross battens. Cross-battens on the tops and bottoms of the cases appear to be very effective in preventing mildew on planks. It is essential that mica waste should be dry at the time of bagging. Any moisture in the mica waste rots the bags where they are in contact with each other in stowage, and where air circulation is restricted. Mica is non-combustible, but loses its natural luster by fire, although it does not char or break. If smoke discolors the surface its commercial value is diminished considerably. When wet by fresh water and the color of the packing cases penetrates the contents and stains the mica (which may also be integrated with its wrappers), its potential value may suffer, but the unaffected portion may be salvaged by drying the mica by sun or heat or in the open air although this may be a very costly operation.
MILD STEEL RODS Bundles of thin steel form a confused pile when the ties break. The lengths are therefore very difficult to handle and heavy allowances for straightening are sometimes demanded. The following simple process, however, can usually rectify damage of this kind. Fix with a "frog" the end of the steel bar to a fixed point; the other end should be fixed to a second "frog" on a cord wound round a winch. This winch in operation will draw out the steel, which will become rigidly straight without appreciable lengthening. This should be a simple and speedy operation at a comparatively small cost. The quality of the steel does not suffer in any way from this kind of manipulation.
MILK CONDENSED MILK - Damage to labels and tins by rust may be caused by milk leaking from the seams of the tins. This can be proved by a vacuum test. Sweating of the tins with consequent rusting and spotting of labels is fairly common, this varying with the time of the year, being worst in consignments shipped from Europe in midwinter. The sweating is primarily due to different rates of change in temperature of the milk, the tin and the wood cases, all of which are probably at a very low temperature at the time of loading, but commence to warm up at different speeds as the vessel moves into warmer weather. Generally, many of tins can be freed from rust and relabeled. A brownish discoloration may be indicative of the age of the contents. See also CANNED GOODS.
MILK DRIED MILK - Storage in a moist atmosphere may give rise to mold growth. Rancidity, caking and bacterial development may be indicative of exposure to air. Milk powder also absorbs moisture, and this may give rise to these conditions. Losses occur from bursting of the containers solely by reason of their inability to hold the weight of the contents; for example, milk powder in 56 lb. tins usually carries well, but when shipped in 112 lb. tins, usually two tins to the case, handling in transit frequently causes the bursting of the tins, even though the cases themselves are in externally good order and condition. See also CANNED GOODS.
MILLBOARD Millboard is the generic term for any solid paperboard, which, unlike corrugated board, contains no cavities. Couching may finish the surfaces, i.e. applying an outer layer made from higher grade raw materials onto the web while it is still wet (to give "lined paperboard"). The properties of millboard may also be improved by adhesive lamination, lining, impregnating or coating. Millboard is made as machine-made board or wet machine board. Millboard is a flat packaging material, which is preferably made from chemical pulp and/or mechanical pulp. Its basis weight is > 600 g/m2, i.e. greater than that of paper and cardboard. Accordingly a distinction is drawn between the following types of paperboard depending upon the raw material used or the intended use: - Wood board: made from wood pulp; - Grayboard: made from waste paper. - Auto panel board: bulky, bituminized paperboard, made from waste paper. - Fine board (hard board): stiff, non-splitting paperboard with a hard surface, generally made from higher grades of waste paper, chemical pulp and textile waste. Types of fine board include bookbinding board, fireboard, jacquard board, gasket board, suitcase board, shoe board, pressboard and punching board. - Roofing felt: paperboard impregnated with tar, bitumen and/or natural asphalt
MIMOSA EXTRACT An extract of mimosa or wattle bark, used in the tanning industry. Absorbs moisture when the air is humid and if excessive heat is present may become soft, whereupon it is likely to exude from the bags and stick to other bags, adjacent cargo, or ship's structure. Damage of this nature may be due to any one or more of the following causes: excessive moisture, excessive heat, lack of suitable ventilation and excessive superincumbent weight. Faults in manufacture could be responsible for softening. Absorption of moisture does not in itself bring about damage to the extract, but as the extract is soluble in water, excessive wetting involves loss. May be subject to loss in weight through drying out.
MIRABOLANS (See Myrabolans)
MOHAIR (Angora Hair) It is the commercial name for the curly hair of the Angora and other Eastern goats. Subject to natural loss in weight due to drying. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MOLASSES It is the syrup, which drains from raw sugar. It is used for making rum, etc. If molasses contains excessive moisture this may cause an increase in invert sugar and a slow loss of total sugars. It has been found that Java molasses may contain a certain amount of cane fiber. This is inherent in the molasses, and is sometimes removed before shipment by heating and straining. Such heating, on discharge, if cane fiber were present, should only be carried out with the full knowledge and compliance of consignees. Subject to loss in weight due to seepage from unsuitable containers or absorption by the containers.
MOLDING POWDERS (See Plastics)
MONAZITE SAND It is sand containing nitrate of thorium, exported from Brazil and the East Indies. It is liable to loss through seepage.
MORTADELLE It is a large Italian sausage, which is subject to loss in weight due to shrinkage.
MOTHER OF PEARL Subject to natural loss in weight, due to shedding of foreign matter (sand, etc.) during course of transit.
MOTOR VEHICLES The causes of several types of damage, which manifest themselves on arrival at destination, should be closely studied. These include paint deterioration, rust and mold damage. So far as paint damage is concerned, pimples or blistering may have been brought about by a fault in the original processing of the metal and painting, or humid conditions existing at that time. Pinhead bubbles may occur due to steel not being properly dried before spraying and not from external causes. With regard to rust or mold, this may be due to humid conditions of stowage or to the climatic conditions prevailing prior to and at time of packing. Condensation during sea transport may lead not only to corrosion of metal parts, but also to mold growth on upholstery, etc., in "built-up" vehicles. One method of preventing the latter is to provide a vapor phase mold inhibitor such as furfural, contained in a suitable dispenser, within each vehicle. Sometimes it is understood that vehicles will be repolished, etc., or may receive a final coat of paint before sale. If the vehicle has been damaged the surveyor should be certain that the charges claimed for reconditioning do not include the ordinary charges which the consignees expected to pay in respect of vehicles. Motor vehicles are at times stowed in 'tween-deck cool chambers and in some cases the doors of these chambers do not give sufficient headroom to allow cars to run over the step on a ramp. The roof of the car can be crushed, or to prevent this, tires are sometimes deflated to reduce the height but not re-inflated; consequently if a car is run on these deflated tires, or stands for any length or time, the wheel rims cut the tubes. Care should be exercised to see that claims for damage do not arise from constructional defects, i.e., doors not closing properly, varnish having been removed where different parts of the bodywork join and rust subsequently setting in. In the case of parts shipped to assembly plants, it has been found on occasion that certain of these, especially chassis, wheels, etc., are so thinly painted that they become rusty during the voyage. This chiefly applies to black-painted parts shipped in bundles. See also US CFR.
MOTOR VEHICLES AUTOMOBILES - Pursuant to 18, para. 8f StVZO (German road traffic licensing regulations) an automobile is a motor vehicle suitable and intended by design and equipment for transporting no more than 9 persons including the driver of the vehicle. Automobiles are generally powered by an internal combustion engine. They may, however also be powered by electrical energy, e.g. by rechargeable batteries, by conversion of chemical energy or by solar cells. A combination of different types of power unit or energy sources is known as a hybrid drive system.
MOTOR VEHICLES MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS - Damage to radiators arises from several radiators being placed loosely in a wooden case, the pipes projecting from the bottom and header tanks (on which the hoses are subsequently slipped) piercing the cores of the adjacent radiators due to movement of the cases during handling, and by reason of the radiators being free to move in their cases. Some manufacturers have adopted the better method of packing in individual cardboard cartons rigidly secured in the case before shipment. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MOTOR VEHICLES TRUCKS - Trucks are subdivided into straight trucks without or with trailers (truck combinations) and truck tractors with semi trailers (articulated trucks) and special vehicles. Depending upon their intended use, trucks are produced with box bodies or flatbed bodies (with or without hoops and tarpaulins), tank, silo, dump or swap bodies. Construction, military, fire fighting, cleaning and many other types of vehicles are equipped with special bodies or loading aids (e.g. cranes, lifting platforms). German road traffic licensing regulations (StVZO) draw a fundamental distinction between trucks (pursuant to 18, para. 8g StVZO, "a motor vehicle intended for carrying goods") with or without a body and truck tractors (pursuant to 18, para. 9h StVZO "motor vehicles constructed exclusively or primarily for pulling trailers"). Further factors that must also be taken into account are in particular the dimensions of the vehicles and vehicle combinations, number of trailers, cornering characteristics, axle load and gross weight as well as engine power. Exemptions may be permitted subject to possible conditions. Trucks are generally powered by an internal combustion engine. See also US CFR.
MOWRAH MEAL This commodity is usually packed in single gunny bags and should be perfectly cool before shipment. Mowrah meal and all oil cakes and oil cake meals have a tendency to heat naturally (inherent vice), as a result of processing, also as a result of exposure and wetting by rain, or the addition of water at the time of process to make weight.
MULLITE (See Kainite)
MUNJEET (See Indian Madder)
MUNTZ METAL SHEETS Scratches, gougings, tears, etc., ruin the sheet for utensil purposes to the extent of the damaged area; the undamaged part of the sheet can be used for cutting circles of suitable size from which utensils are also made. Seawater and fresh water produce stains; seawater will corrode to depths, which may ruin the sheet. So long as the stain is superficial, the sheet can be used, but if rough and pitted, may have to be rejected.
MURIATE OF POTASH It is a white or pink crystalline solid from natural potash salt deposits. It is hygroscopic and liable to natural loss in weight and sometimes contains common salt and may harden during the voyage, giving rise to difficulty and extra cost in discharge. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MUSHROOMS (Dried) Are liable to damage if subjected to warm temperatures, and should be carried in a properly ventilated hold.
MUSTARD Mustard, a seasoning of pasty consistency and a more or less pungent flavor, arrived in Europe in the 8th century. It is produced from mustard flour, which is made from partially or non-deoiled mustard seeds, using vinegar, salt, sugar, spices and water. The various types of mustard differ in strength, which is attributable to the proportion of black or brown (strong) and yellow (mild) mustard seeds. Mustard is yellowish brown in color. In particular, the following types of mustard are commercially available: - "strong mustard", which often tends towards "extra strong" in flavor and is made from brown mustard seeds. - "medium strength mustard", which is made from a majority of yellow mustard seeds and a smaller proportion of brown mustard seeds. - "table mustard", which is made from yellow seeds and is not therefore very strong. - "sweet mustard", which contains added sugar. Oil content: at least 1.5% (allyl mustard oil)
MUSTARD OIL Mustard oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from seeds of the black and white (Sinapis alba) mustard plants. In the crude state, black mustard oil (Brassica nigra, light color) has a spicy odor and a pungent taste. When refined it is neutral in odor and taste. White mustard oil (yellow color) has a bitingly pungent taste due to the allyl mustard oil it contains. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
MUSTARD SEED (See Seeds)
MYRABOLAN EXTRACT Usually shipped in bags. Normally carries well, but will melt if subjected to heat. If there is any excess of moisture (not ascertainable by inspection) the bags will coagulate and arrive in a solid block, difficult to break up. Sawdust between the tiers of bags absorbs the drainage, and prevents the stacks of bags from becoming blocked in a solid mass.
MYRABOLANS (Mirabolans, Myrobalans) The fruit of an Eastern tree, from which oil is extracted and used, amongst other things, as a hair-restorer. The groundnut is also used in the tanning industry and in the manufacture of ink. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out, but it has been known for this commodity to increase slightly in weight. If exposed to excessively damp atmosphere this product will mildew. Myrabolans are usually packed in old gunnies when shipped from India, whether they are exported as nuts or in a crushed form. Excess heat may affect the tanning properties and if wetted for any length of time they will deteriorate may ferment and cause deterioration of the gunny bags. Damaged myrabolans should be separated from the sound and exposed for drying. Small damaged myrabolans will secure a better price if crushed before selling. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NAILS Subject to damage by rusting, which may be due to the nature of the packing, or dampness inherent in the wood from which the packing cases are made. Customary method of cleaning is to mix with sand and revolve in a drum.
NAPEE (See Fish)
NAPHTHALENE May arrive discolored, i.e., with a pink or brown tinge instead of the usual snow-white color, this being due to the nature of the ingredients in the naphthalene. Red spots do not necessarily indicate damage by water but may point to defective manufacture. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to evaporation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NEATSFOOT OIL Oil obtained from split feet of oxen and used for dressing and softening leather. Subject to natural loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NEWSPRINT The rolls are easily damaged during handling. The slightest knock against any hard or concrete body will cause a crack of the roll, while a forceful knock or a drop from a sling may cause serious damage. Sometimes the center (metal or wooden) is squashed flat, making the roll useless for its original purpose. Damage may take place during loading, but occurs chiefly during discharge due to careless handling of winches and cranes when lifting from the holds. Damage can arise from bad stowage. e.g. with case goods or other sharp volumes, or by forcing rolls behind ladders, shaft tunnels or similar hindrances. If wet, newsprint may be unfit for printing purposes but may possibly be used for pulp, manufacturing paper bags, shop wrapping paper, etc. Should a reel come into contact with steelwork, be rolled over an uneven surface or dropped unevenly on its end, damage may be found in the form of cuts or tears on the face or edge of the newsprint reel. There are two methods of establishing the amount of damage to newsprint reels. One is to have the damage cut off the reel and the amount of paper thus cut off weighed. The alternative is to measure the depth that the cut or tear has penetrated the reel, and calculate the amount of loss by use of a formula such as the following: 4 T (D-T) x W where C = diameter of core in inches D2-C2 D = diameter of reel in inches T = depth of cut in inches W = weight Newsprint is produced in 7 stages: 1. In the stock preparation stage, fresh fibers (mechanical pulp = mechanically comminuted wood, chemical pulp = chemically digested wood) and waste paper are mixed with fillers and additives. 2. In the head box, the repulped fiber mixture is distributed over the width and length of the machine (10 m wide, 200 m long). 3. The fibers are deposited on the wire in layers, a large amount of water draining off, although the "sheet" still contains approximately 80% water. 4. The application of mechanical pressure forces out more water, leaving 50 - 60% water. 5. In the dryer section, the remaining moisture is removed from paper web by evaporation. 6. In the colandar, the paper is colandared to yield machine-finished paper. 7. The finished paper web is wound onto a drum (steel core). In Central Europe, newsprint is mainly made from waste paper, the proportion in German paper factories being around 60%, and often 90 - 100%. The printing inks are removed from the waste paper by the de-inking process. Paper produced in Scandinavian countries and Canada, where wood abounds, consists of a mixture of fresh fibers from mechanical and chemical pulp. As a result of new research, the previous manufacturing processes using environmentally unfriendly sulfates, sulfites or chlorine are being abandoned in favor of formic acid, and lower quality starting materials, such as hemp or straw, may be processed instead of wood.
NIGER SEED (Ramtil) (See Oilseeds) Niger seed also known as thistle seed is rich in oil used as birdseed. Usually shipped in jute bags, condensation, water damage is a transit concern. FDA has strict controls; the seed must be sterilized prior to distribution
NIGER SEED OIL It an oil of a light yellow clean color of low acidity (free fatty acid below 2%) produced by crushing the Niger seed. Its principle use in India is as edible oil. In Europe the oil is put to many uses, including the preparation of medicines. Is an oil which can be easily adulterated with groundnut oil, and in a small sample, detection of this adulteration is not always easy. The drums in which the oil is filled for export must be thoroughly cleaned and if at destination any bad smell is noticeable the oil must be analyzed for water content. Water left in the drums may be the cause.
NITRAMONICAL A trade name for a mixture of calcium and ammonium nitrate, both of which are very hygroscopic materials, but calcium nitrate is much more so than the latter. On exposure to excessively damp atmospheric conditions the final result would be a liquid consisting of a solution of both constituents and under subsequent drying conditions the salts would finally crystallize out. This mixture may or may not be very hard. The change, which has taken place, is purely of a physical nature, only the form of the fertilizer material having been altered, and there would be little if any loss in fertilizer value. Reduction of the hard lumps by either grinding or crushing would give a material, which could be distributed in the normal way. See also FERTILIZERS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NITRATE OF SODA CHILEAN OR SYNTHETIC - This commodity is granulated for the purpose of being used as a top dressing for plants and if damaged by water it becomes solid. Although unfit for the purpose intended, it may be sold for mixing with fertilizing materials. Contamination by water will increase the weight of the nitrate, at the same time reducing the nitrogen content. Although quite stable in itself, mixture with fine organic matter such as straw, wood, cork, rope dust, etc. can be very dangerous. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NITROPHOSPHATE Nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer, with potassium salts usually added to produce a complete fertilizer. Subject to a natural gain or loss in weight. When exposed to atmospheric moisture quickly turns to paste. Must be protected from moisture in transit.
NON-DIASTATIC SYRUP (Malt) (Pharmaceutical) Made from grain used to add color and taste to food items. If the wooden barrels arrive broken, the contents will most probably be found to be in an advanced stage of fermentation, frothing and effervescent. The causes, which excite the fermentation, are manifold climatic conditions, humidity, contamination, defective saccharification, etc.
NOODLES Usually packed in moisture barrier inner packing then placed in corrugated master cartons usually carried to destination in transit containers. It is liable to infestation. Damp or humid conditions may give rise to deterioration.
NUTMEGS May be subject to loss in weight due to drying out. Excessive moisture may result in moldiness both within and on the exterior surface of the nutmeg giving off an unwholesome smell of a spicy aroma. The nutmeg loses its firmness and in many instances crumbles on manual pressure. When nutmegs become wet, they should be promptly dried in layers, and if so treated should show no signs of damage. Nutmegs, water soaked for unduly long periods, will deteriorate due to mold and breakdown of tissues; may decay and as a result reduce their commercial value, possibly altogether. Nutmeg is the seed kernel, removed from its husk and seed covering (aril), of the cultivated evergreen nutmeg tree of the Myristicaea family, native to the Moluccas. The oval nutmegs have a reticulated wrinkled surface and are 2 - 3.5 cm long and up to 2 cm thick. The tissue of the seed kernel is yellowish, with dark strands passing through it, which contain the essential oil. Nutmegs are divided into the following varieties: - Siauw or East Indian nutmeg, West Indian nutmeg: gray-brown, rounded oval, limed or unlimed seeds, 26 - 35 mm long, diameter 15 -24 mm - Papua nutmeg: gray-brown, elongate oval, limed or unlimed seeds, up to 35 mm long, diameter 10 - 18 mm - "shriveled" nutmeg: gray-brown, rounded oval, unlimed, highly wrinkled seed with internal cavities Oil content: - 6 - 10% essential oils, in particular myristicin, elemicin - up to 40% fatty oils (nutmeg butter)
NUTS AND KERNELS Very liable to mold damage and splitting, which may be due to natural causes. For example, splitting may be caused by late rains prior to the harvesting of the nuts, or through being shipped in a damp condition, mold subsequently forming in the cavities. Mold due to this cause may well develop after shipment and during course of transit. Nuts and kernels are similarly affected by moisture and are also liable to infestation, which can in some cases be avoided by sterilization before shipment. Nuts and kernels are particularly susceptible to shrinkage and loss in weight, the degree of which varies considerably according to the year of the crop. Older crops are especially prone to damage by weevil and may become rancid. Where possible, the date of the crop is an important point for the surveyor's consideration. Some nuts and kernels are very liable to heat and ferment, particularly if shipped in a damp condition. It is not uncommon for old season's nuts to be mixed when the new season's shipment takes place, and when dealing with questions of transit damage this possibility should not be overlooked. See also OILSEEDS.
NUTS AND KERNELS BRAZIL NUTS - Brazil nuts are the large, elongate, three-sided, oily seeds of the South American brazil nut tree (monkey-pot tree family, Lecythidaceae). Because of their flavor, they are also known as the butternut or cream nut. Brazil nuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. The Brazil nut tree, which, at a height of 20 - 60 m, towers over the canopy of the tropical forest has a fruit capsule 30 cm in diameter which contains 10 - 40 three-sided, brown nuts, each 3 - 5 cm in length. These nuts are arrayed around a central column, in a similar manner to the segments of a citrus fruit around the placenta. The shell of the nut is extremely hard, wrinkly and woody. The shell encloses a white seed kernel, which is surrounded by a brown seed coat, which contains antioxidants, which protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). Once they have fallen to the ground, the fruit capsules are harvested by collectors, broken open, washed and then taken to collection centers, from which they are dispatched to shelling plants or traders. Oil content: - 50 - 68% - up to 70%
NUTS AND KERNELS CASHEW NUTS AND KERNELS - There is a very important distinction between cashew nuts and cashew kernels; cashew nuts are the raw nuts in their shells, and the cashew kernels are the kernels obtained from these nuts. The raw nuts are usually shipped in bags, sometimes-secondhand grain sacks. The kernels usually put in tins, which are usually gas packed or vacuum-packed as a protection against infestation. The kernels should be packed dry; if they are insufficiently dry they may deteriorate, and if in a really damp condition they may become caked, rancid and discolored. The raw nuts are often imported and then re-exported as kernels; for example, they are imported into India from East Africa, and then re-exported with the kernels of nuts actually grown in India. The sale or insurance contract often contains the words "warranted new crop." It is generally not possible to state definitely whether cashew kernels, when completely processed and ready for shipment, are of new or old crop, or, other than in exceptional circumstances, whether they are from nuts of Indian or African origin. Stipulations in connection with grading also give rise to considerable difficulty, as the grades are not based on any standard specifications. This applies particularly to the grades of whole kernels, which are usually sold on the basis of the average number of kernels per lb. Shippers' and buyers' ideas may differ in the variation of size permissible for each grade; strictly speaking the kernels of one grade should be of an even size, but some degree of tolerance is allowed. Rough handling may damage cases and cause breakage of kernels. Whole kernels may also sustain breakage if packed too dry. Contact with water may also cause discoloration of cases and rusting of tins, but contents should be unaffected. Kernels are liable to be infested by beetles, moths, larvae, etc., due to improper packing and not necessarily from external causes. Contents of tins are not expected to suffer loss in weight. Raw cashew nuts are subject to damage by moisture and may deteriorate after long storage in an undried state. Nuts may usually be expected to contain some bad kernels. Cashew nuts are the stone fruits of the cashew tree, which grows to a height of up to 12 m and belongs to the sumac family (Anacardiaceous). Cashew nuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. Cashew nuts are classed as follows: 1. Cashew apple The cashew apple, at up to 9 cm in length, is the pear-shaped, swollen, soft, shiny yellow or red, fleshy stem of the cashew nut proper. The cashew apple itself is not suitable for transport and storage. 2. The cashew nut The cashew nut is a stone fruit, which grows out of the bottom of the cashew apple, is approx. 2 - 2.5 cm long, kidney-shaped, yellowish-reddish in color and has a hard shell with a single kernel with a delicate aroma. It is removed from the cashew apple after harvesting and sun- or hot air-dried, the shell then becoming detached to reveal the kernel proper. 3. The cashew kernel This is surrounded by a fine, brown seed coat, which contains antioxidants, which protect the kernel from penetration by atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). Cashew nuts are also known as anacardium nuts. Oil content: 45 - 50%
NUTS AND KERNELS CHESTNUTS - Chestnuts suffering from "stanca" (tiredness), causing deterioration in the appearance of the nuts can be refreshed in a cold-water bath. This condition of "stanca" should not affect the value of the goods, as after being refreshed in cold water they should recover their original worth. Under this treatment defective nuts float to the surface. Chestnuts respire, and during the respiration process moisture and gases are given off which, if not controlled by circulation of air around and through the cases and barrels, will cause heat and mold to develop. Chestnuts under refrigeration will, if properly stowed and dunnaged, and proper temperatures maintained, remain in sound condition for periods as long as one year. Prior to shipment Italian chestnuts are generally given hot-water baths, the purpose of which is to destroy insect infestation, and subsequently given a few minutes immersion in cold water, after which the nuts are placed on the floors or platforms of the ware houses and massed, heaped and shoveled from time to time until they are dry. They are then graded, polished and packed. If the pre-shipment baths and other treatments given are not proper and adequate, chestnuts will develop mold within a few days. There is a risk of chestnuts deteriorating after discharge if unloaded from refrigerated spaces into the hot sun. Once the process of deterioration has begun, it is difficult if not impossible to arrest it. Chestnuts are liable to infestation, and should be sterilized before shipment. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Sweet chestnuts are edible nuts, which grow on trees of the genus Castanea in the beech family (Fagaceae). Chestnuts are native to the Black Sea area. They have a spiky, external husk (cupule), which spontaneously breaks open when ripe to reveal the actual fruit. The outer husk may contain 1 - 3 fruits. The fruit consists of the light colored nut kernel, a thin skin and a red-brown to brown pericarp. The base of the nut has a light colored spot, also known as the "navel". Chestnuts are of a round to oval shape. Their flavor may be described as nutty. Boiling or roasting imparts a still stronger aroma to chestnuts. Cooking also makes it easy to remove the skin and shell from the nut kernel. The nut kernel predominantly consists of starch, protein, minerals and chestnut oil. For a nut, its vitamin C content is relatively high. The oil content of chestnuts is 1 - 2% (chestnut oil). There are a very large number of different varieties of chestnuts, just one of which is the "keeping" chestnut, which remains on the tree longer than normal chestnuts and must be picked by hand.
NUTS AND KERNELS COCONUTS - "Growers" (nuts beginning to sprout through the eye under tuft), "Bad Shakers" (nuts short of liquid content), and "Cracked Nuts" should be rejected prior to shipment. It is important that coconuts be kept out of the sun, as the nuts may become sun cracked and arrive dry. A cool ventilated space should be selected for stowage. Coconuts are liable to heat and steam. Subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying. See also OILSEEDS, general remarks. Coconuts are the stone fruits of the coconut palm of the palm family (Palmae, Arecaceae), which flourish best in tropical coastal regions (salt spray). The native habitat of the coconut palm is not known with certainty because coconuts can float for considerable distances in seawater without losing their ability to germinate. As a result, coconuts palms are now to be found on tropical beaches worldwide. 50 - 120 fruit may be harvested from a single coconut palm. Each fruit weighs 1 - 2.5 kg. The coco-de-mar or Seychelles double coconut is the largest coconut and may weigh as much as 20 kg. A longitudinal section through a coconut reveals the following structure: the coconut is enclosed in a leathery, glossy outer skin (exocarp), which is of a yellow-green to yellow-brown color and is watertight. Under the exocarp is a spongy, fibrous husk (coir) or mesocarp, which is 4 - 6 cm in thickness. This layer corresponds to the flesh (pulp) of other fruit. The fibrous husk is removed from the hard nut with a spike. The fibers are processed to produce carpeting, mats and the like. Removal of the coir reveals the familiar coconut. The outer layer of the coconut is a brown, very hard endocarp, approx. 0.5 cm thick, which is a rounded, triangular stone, the blunt end of which has three "eyes", i.e. germ pores set in pits. Moving inwards, the following layer is the solid endosperm, an oily layer 1 - 2 cm in thickness, which is protected by a brown seed coat and, once dried, yields copra. The seed coat contains antioxidants, which protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). The kernel is hollow and 95% full of clear coconut milk (liquid endosperm). Coconuts, which are intended for transport, have generally already had the outermost two layers removed. Coconuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. Oil content: 30 - 40%
NUTS AND KERNELS HAZLENUTS - The hazelnut is the single-seeded indehiscent fruit of the hazel tree (filbert family, Corylaceae), which grows to a height of 7 m. The nut ripens from mid-August, sits in a slit, cupule-type husk formed from bracts and has a relatively thick, hard, woody shell, which constitutes approx. 55% of its weight. The edible kernel within consists of delicious-tasting hard flesh enclosed in a brownish seat coat. The hazelnut kernel is surrounded by a brown seed coat, which contains antioxidants, which protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). Hazelnuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. To harvest them, sheets of cloth are laid beneath the trees and the branches of the trees are then shaken. The nuts are subsequently dried in a well-ventilated place. German-produced hazelnuts are generally sold with their shell on, but can only meet a small proportion of German demand. For this reason, unshelled and shelled hazelnuts (hazelnut kernels) are imported into Germany from the countries of origin listed below. Oil content: - hazelnuts (unshelled) 50 - 62% - hazelnut kernels 60 - 68%
NUTS AND KERNELS PISTACHIO NUTS - Are used in the confectionery trade. Oil is also extracted and is used for flavoring purposes. Exposure to sun will cause dryness and change in taste. Exposure to heat may breed vermin and contact with water or dampness may cause a change in taste and quality. When stored for a long period without adequate ventilation the nuts will deteriorate, which becomes manifest by the odor arising. Pistachio nuts are the single-seeded stone fruit of the pistachio tree (sumac family, Anacardiaceous), which is native to the Mediterranean area. Pistachio nuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. The pistachio has pinnate leaves and bears stone fruit 1 - 2 cm in size, whose light brown shell opens when ripe. The kernels have a brown seed coat. The seed coat contains antioxidants, which protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). After removal of the brown seed coat, the brilliant green color of the kernels is a sign of freshly harvested nuts. There are many cultivars of pistachio nuts, which are also known as green almonds. Oil content: - 45 - 54% - 55%
NUTS AND KERNELS ALMONDS - Delicate commodity easily damaged by moisture, heat, odors or contact with unclean goods, especially when shelled. If not sterilized before shipment may become infested with vermin when subjected to long voyages. Subject to a natural loss in weight. Almonds are the single-seeded, plum-sized stone fruits of the almond tree (Rosaceae family). Almonds are native to the Middle East and Central Asia. The stone fruit encloses a kernel, the actual almond, which is approx. 2 cm long and covered in a light brown seed coat. The seed coat contains antioxidants, which protect the oil-rich almonds from penetration by atmospheric oxygen so preventing them from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). Almonds are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. - Sweet almonds (Prunus amygdalus dulcis): these also include the soft-shelled almond (Prunus amygdalus fragilis), which has a porous, highly fragile shell. Sweet almonds are generally of an oval, flattened or roundish shape, are tender and have a sweetish flavor. - Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus amara): These are generally smaller and more pointed than sweet almonds and have an astringent, bitter flavor. Bitter almonds contain approx. 2 - 4% of the glycoside amygdaline, which, in the presence of water and the enzyme emulsion (e.g. in the human digestive tract), releases hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, which is harmful to human health: as few as 7 - 10 bitter almonds eaten raw can cause severe problems and may even be fatal to children. Boiling or baking of the bitter almonds drives off most of the hydrocyanic acid so that there is no need to fear any harmful effects from eating them once cooked. - Mountain almonds: roundish, flatter and smaller than the other two types, unnotched, bitter flavor. Almonds are harvested once their hull has opened and the green hull is immediately removed in order to prevent mold growth and the nuts are then dried in the sun or in dryers. Oil content: - 53 - 59% - 54% soft-shelled almonds - 40 - 55 %
NUTS AND KERNELS NUX VOMICA (Vomica Nut) - Used as a homeopathic ingredient used to stop nausea and vomiting and has other pharmaceutical purposes. Heat has no bad effect on this commodity, unless it is excessive. Contact with fresh water or salt water affects the quality; the small discs become discolored and if allowed to remain wet for any length of time they lose a great deal of their properties. As soon as it is found that Nux Vomica has been in contact with water, it must be exposed to the air for drying and damaged goods picked from the sound. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
NUTS AND KERNELS TAGUA NUTS (Corozo Nuts) - It is used as a substitute for Ivory in carvings and statues. Shipped in bags and used for making buttons, etc. May become infested with weevil if allowed to lie exposed to hot weather. After coming into contact with fresh or rainwater, buttons of this nature may be found to be covered with a slight mold and lacking in luster.
NUTS AND KERNELS WALNUTS - Walnuts are the rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree native to southern Europe, which is a member of Juglandaceae family. The walnut is enclosed in a green, leathery, fleshy husk, which is inedible. Removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is in two halves, and encloses the kernel, which is likewise in two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels are enclosed in a brown seed coat, which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing rancidity (oxidative rancidity). Walnuts are shell fruit (nut types). Because of their similar characteristics with regard to transport, particularly their high oil content, their requirements regarding care during storage and transport are the same as those of oil-bearing seeds/fruits. Due to their high fat content, walnuts have a significant nutritional value. They are of the following composition: - water: 5% - protein: 15% - fat: 63% - carbohydrates: 13% - fiber: 2% - minerals: 2% Oil content: - 50 - 65% - 40 - 65%
NUX VOMICA (Vomica Nut) (See Nuts and Kernels)
OATS (See Grain)
OIL CAKE Subject to a natural loss in weight through drying out. A formation of mold may result from contact with water or dampness, in which condition the cake heats up considerably. Can be stored without detrimental results for up to six months in such hot climates as the Sudan. Longer storage may render the cake mildewy and at the same time liable to infestation by weevil. Weevil infestation may commence earlier, depending upon whether the store in which the cake is kept is itself infested. See also under individual headings. Residue obtained after expression of vegetable oils from oil-bearing seeds, used as cattle feed and fertilizer. When ground they are known as meal. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILS (See under individual headings, and also Bulk Oil and Fats) "Oils" is a collective term for more or less viscous, generally organic-chemical liquids. Depending on their chemical composition, a distinction may be drawn between fatty, essential, mineral and silicone oils. Fatty oils include liquid, semisolid and solid products of vegetable and animal origin. They are also known as sweet oils. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) Small changes in moisture content dependent on the condition of the atmosphere will not normally cause damage to oilseeds. If, however, the seeds are in a confined space, the lack of ventilation may lead to heating in which the evaporation may be excessive in parts of the seed with condensation in other parts, leading to local mold growth. This will result in a rapid increase in free fatty acid of the oil. An example of this is the sweating of seed, which takes place under tarpaulins when they have been kept on for several days. In the early stages the seeds stick together and form lumps, which break up easily unless the damage has become severe. A bag of seed then may become a solid block. Claims may be put forward on the ground that there has been a high increase in acid value of "free fatty acid" in consequence of decrease in oil content. This type of loss may be partly attributable to the nature of the seed itself, i.e. quality (green), unfavorable weather at the time of harvest, insufficient drying, etc. It is desirable to check the analysis out-turn of both sound and damaged seeds as a guide to assessment of allowance. If the seeds are wet and mildewed the oil to be extracted may not be seriously damaged or not damaged at all, as there is not an increase of acidity. Chemical tests should be made to determine the extent of damage, if any. Apart from water damage, country damage can take the form of heating in stacks due to bad ventilation or insect infestation causing hot spots in seeds, fermentation and, in some cases, loss in weight. Insect attack is more common with peanuts than with palm kernels; it is recognized in the case of nuts in shell by the entry holes in the shell, and, in kernels, by numerous holes and the presence of larvae. Insect damage as well as heating results in increased fatty acid. Heating in storage will lead to mold growth and, in cases where the temperature is high, scorching of the seed will be obvious. With insect damage, an intense attack will be denoted by the presence of a quantity of fine meal associated with the kernels. Normally there is no danger of loss of color in peanuts and palm kernels during transit. They may, however, be discolored due to damage by one or other of the causes indicated above. Loss of weight can occur due to loss of moisture or to extensive insect infestation. The former is only determined by an analysis of the seed. It depends on the humidity at the time of weighing as there is equilibrium moisture take up of the seed dependent on atmospheric conditions. If the nuts are loaded under condition of high humidity there is every possibility that they will lose weight in transit. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) BABASSU KERNELS - They are found in the Amazon Region a good source of oil and protein. The kernels themselves need a strong force to open them up. They are liable to considerable heating and sweating with consequent loss of weight and emit a strong odor, especially when sweating.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) COTTONSEED - Generally classified as "white" or "black." The white variety has the woolly lint adhering to the seed, while the black has practically no lint adhering to it and the black and brown husk of the seed itself is visible. Cottonseed is liable to heat from inherent vice and the extent of such internal damage is ascertainable by crushing the seed under a hammer and estimating the extent of the damage by the discoloration of the seed. The lint on the white variety is liable to absorb moisture, thereby creating heat with subsequent decomposition. Cottonseed is liable to spontaneous combustion, especially if loaded during wet or damp weather. When packed in second-hand bags the contents are liable to escape. Long storage may affect the oil content, at the same time increasing the acidity content. Cottonseed is the oil-bearing seed of the cotton plant. It belongs to the mallow (Malvaceae) family. A distinction is drawn between white and black cottonseed, as they differ, particularly in their tendency to self-heating. While with black seed the risk may be classified as slight, with white seed the risk is distinctly greater, owing to its sorption behavior, i.e. its water vapor absorption capacity. The different sorption behavior is caused by cotton fibers, which cling to the white seeds but not to the black ones. Oil content: 18.0 - 26.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) PEANUT KERNELS - The size and color of peanut kernels vary according to the country of origin. The color varies from a pale buff to a deep red or reddish brown, but all kernels in good condition have a bright appearance. Peanut kernels are subject to deterioration if shipped in wet condition or with high moisture content and, apart from mold or mildew, which may appear externally, the kernels are liable to heat internally. Kernels which have been stored for any length of time before shipment are subject to infestation, evidenced by a thin layer of dust on the outside of the kernels. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) LINSEED OR FLAXSEED - is the seed from the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum), which is a member of the Linaceae family and is a source of both oil and fiber. The seed is of a flattened, elongated oval shape with a brown-yellowish color and a glossy surface. The plant is native to West Asia and the Mediterranean.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) LINSEED - Linseed is a fairly hardy seed and can be stored in dry temperate conditions for a considerable time. When subjected to humid, unventilated conditions the seed tends to coagulate and will deteriorate rapidly. The types of linseed vary considerably, according to the country of origin, both in size and color, and linseed from the Near East (Iran, Iraq, etc.) will often be found to contain a high percentage of fine dust of a sandy nature. As this is used for production of linseed oil, cake and meal, damaged seed will produce poor quality oil, dark in color and high in free fatty acid content, and a cake or meal deficient in proteins. Damage from moisture, heat and sweat, apart from being evidenced by coagulation, will also set up an internal discoloration of the seed, which should normally be white or near white in color. The quickest way to establish damage by overheating in the case of linseed is to crush suspect seeds. When the seed is heat-damaged the internal color varies from a light brown to completely black in very severe cases. Sound seed is of a light yellow color. Where seed has been damaged by water a musty odor is present. This odor varies in strength according to the extent of the water damage. The critical aspects are moisture content, particularly through water damage, and this can be exaggerated by heat or lack of ventilation during the course of transit. Speed in protecting damaged seed is essential, as rapid deterioration can take place. Losses in value can be avoided by modern methods of drying.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) PALM KERNELS - According to the degree of freshness, this product always loses a variable percentage of oil, which can be noted by the dark color and greasy state of the sacks. Stowage near sources of heat or in a damp hold is liable to provoke mold, usually a white film that can be brushed away. Palm kernels are much harder and more resistant to damage than groundnuts, and consequently damage is much less frequent and more difficult to detect. If, however, the seed has been wet for any length of time it will swell and soften. The signs of damage are similar to those in the case of groundnuts; in particular a characteristic sour smell. The free fatty acid does not tend to rise so quickly but the accompanying oxidation tends to do more damage to the quality of the refined oil. The greater the amount of water and the longer the time of soaking, the greater the damage will occur to the seed.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) SESAME SEED EXPELLER - Sesame seed expeller comes from pressing residues arising from oil extraction of sesame seed. In the case of pressure filtration, oilcakes are obtained by cold pressing (expeller pre-pressing) and subsequent hydraulic pressing, while expellers are produced by hot pressing (expeller final pressing). The finished expellers leave the production plant while still hot and with variable moisture content. After pressing, the expellers are cooled and, since they are in large pieces, they are ground and adjusted to water content suitable for storage and transport. The ground products are then held in intermediate storage in silos or sent for transport. Grain size: diameter 20 - 40 mm Oil content: 1.9 - 12.1% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) SHEANUTS - The nut of the shea tree, grown in Africa, which possesses considerable oil content, the oil being extracted for the manufacture of bakery fats. These nuts have a high tendency to dry out and exude oil during storage and shipment.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) SUNFLOWER EXPELLER - See Sesame Seed Expeller Grain size: diameter 20 - 40 mm Oil content: 1.5 - 7.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) SUNFLOWER SEED - EXPELLER SEEDS. Sunflower seeds are the conical fruits of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which belongs to the composite-flower family (Compositae), and are approx. 7.5 - 17 mm long, 9 mm wide and 2 - 2.5 mm thick. Additional typical characteristics are their very lightweight and their white, black or white and black striped coloring. The sunflower comes originally from the Americas, probably Mexico or Peru. It is an annual composite-flower plant, growing to up to 3 m in height and having brown disc florets and yellow ray florets. The fruit husk and seed coat are fused together into a hard shell, which protects the embryo. Sunflower seeds are available in the shell and shelled. Generally in shell sunflower seeds are transported by sea, as microorganisms very easily destroy shelled sunflower seeds. Oil content: - 19 - 57% - 20% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) TUCUM KERNELS - derived from the nuts from the oil palm (Astrocaryum tucuma) of northeastern Brazil. It is valued for use in the bakery industry because of its higher melting point. It is relatively heavy oil that melts at approximately 35 degrees Centigrade.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) LINSEED EXPELLER - Linseed expeller comprises pressing residues arising from oil extraction from linseed. Depending upon how the oil is extracted, the following distinctions are made: - pressure filtration (pressing: cold and hot pressing) - solvent extraction - pelletization In the case of pressure filtration, oilcakes are obtained by cold pressing (expeller pre-pressing) and subsequent hydraulic pressing, while expellers are produced by hot pressing (expeller final pressing). The finished expellers leave the production plant while still hot and with variable moisture content. After pressing, the expellers are cooled and, since they are in large pieces, they are ground and adjusted to water content suitable for storage and transport. The ground products are then held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. Grain size: diameter 20 - 40 mm Oil content: 4.0 - 5.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) PEANUT EXPELLER - Peanut expeller comprises pressing residues arising from oil extraction from peanuts. Depending upon how the oil is extracted, the following distinctions are made: - pressure filtration (pressing: cold and hot pressing) - solvent extraction - pelletization In the case of pressure filtration, oilcakes are obtained by cold pressing (expeller pre-pressing) and subsequent hydraulic pressing, while expellers are produced by hot pressing (expeller final pressing). The finished expellers leave the production plant while still hot and with variable moisture content. After pressing, the expellers are cooled and, since they are in large pieces, they are ground and adjusted to water content suitable for storage and transport. The ground products are then held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. Grain size: diameter 15 - 40 mm Oil content: 1.5 - 7.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) NIGER SEED (Ramtil) - The seed from an Indian plant. Heat, unless very excessive, usually has no bad effect. Contact with water causes, among other things, discoloration and loss of oil content.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) CASTOR SEEDS - The oil from this seed is used as a pharmaceutical. Should the bags burst, these small seeds will scatter and penetrate widely throughout the space where they are loaded. For this reason they should be segregated from edible produce as they are capable of causing poisonous contamination. Heating cannot usually be detected from external examination, but can be ascertained by cracking the beans to detect internal discoloration. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) COPRA EXPELLER - Copra expeller comprises pressing residues arising from oil extraction from copra (coconut flesh). Depending upon how the oil is extracted, the following distinctions are made: - Pressure filtration (pressing: cold and hot pressing) - Solvent extraction - pelletization In the case of pressure filtration, oilcakes are obtained by cold pressing (expeller pre-pressing) and subsequent hydraulic pressing, while expellers are produced by hot pressing (expeller final pressing). The finished expellers leave the production plant while still hot and with variable moisture content. After pressing, the expellers are cooled and, since they are in large pieces, they are ground and adjusted to water content suitable for storage and transport. The ground products are then held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. Grain size: diameter 20 - 40 mm Oil content: 1.5 - 7.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) COTTONSEED EXPELLER - Cottonseed expeller comprises pressing residues arising from oil extraction from cottonseed. Depending upon how the oil is extracted, the following distinctions are made: - pressure filtration (pressing: cold and hot pressing) - solvent extraction - pelletization In the case of pressure filtration, oilcakes are obtained by cold pressing (expeller pre-pressing) and subsequent hydraulic pressing, while expellers are produced by hot pressing (expeller final pressing). The finished expellers leave the production plant while still hot and with variable moisture content. After pressing, the expellers are cooled and, since they are in large pieces, they are ground and adjusted to water content suitable for storage and transport. The ground products are then held in intermediate storage in silo cells or sent for transport. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) EXPELLER SEEDS - Spontaneous combustion may arise in bags of expeller seeds due to the self-heating of the material, which may give rise to a temperature sufficient to ignite the gunny bags in which it is contained, this being partially due to gunny bags in which the seed is contained becoming impregnated with oil pressed from the expellers, partly by self-heating and partly by cargo pressure. The process usually adopted in the manufacture of expellers requires that the sunflower seeds, after grinding, are heated to a high temperature and then passed through a mechanical press, which separates and releases the oil content. The residue, which forms the expellers, is sometimes heated again and pressed until the oil content is reduced to a very small proportion; the resulting residue should then be allowed to cool before being packed for shipment. In some cases quantities are not sufficiently cool be fore being placed in the bags and, if shipped in this condition, heating will develop further in certain conditions of stowage or storage. See also later entry, SUNFLOWER SEEDS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. GROUNDNUTS - SEE PEANUTS
OILSEEDS (including Palm Kernels, Peanuts, etc.) PEANUTS - Old peanuts have a dark appearance, dry and wrinkled, whereas fresh produce is well formed and of a light brown color. Heating due to inherent vice may be evident by reason of it having commenced in the center of the bags; the peanuts next to the sacking of the bags may be found upon examination to be sound or in a better condition than those in the centers of the bags. Chinese peanuts are usually shipped with a certificate to the effect that the moisture content is less than 10%, but damage is often found despite the statement showing a lesser moisture content. Some shippers may be inclined to ship peanuts during the new crop season, mixed with the previous season's nuts, thereby in creasing the danger of infestation. Certificates as to their condition, quality, moisture content, splits and spot tests should accompany all shipments. Water action on groundnuts is definitely serious because of the high protein content of the seed. Small amounts of water tend to make the seed rubbery and consequently difficult to process. If the damage is longstanding then the wetting of the nuts generally leads to fermentation. The nuts, then, according to the amount of damage: (1) Give off an offensive smell; (2) Appear slimy; (3) Commence to heat; (4) Ultimately mold. Hydrolysis in the oil and a marked increase in free fatty acidity may follow. If the damage is excessive the ultimate effect of this is that it becomes impossible to process the nuts by normal methods. Drying improves matters but the oil is usually permanently damaged. The rise in acidity causes low yields on refining and, owing to the fact that the rise is usually accompanied by oxidation, poor quality refined oil is the result. These results depend on the amount of water and the length of time elapsing since the damage took place. Peanuts are the leguminous fruits of an annual of the papilionaceous plant family (Leguminosae), growing underground (geocarpy) to a length of 2 - 6 cm. They have a thin, netted, wrinkly, fragile shell (pod) with 1 - 4 (generally 2) kernels, which are 1.5 - 2.5 cm in size. The shell fraction amounts to 25%. The peanut is native to South America and is cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is also called groundnut or earthnut. Strictly speaking, peanuts are not true nuts, but rather are geocarpic legumes (i.e. legumes which grow underground). Since, owing to their high oil content, they have the same characteristics with regard to transport as nuts, they will be dealt with in this product group. Peanuts are transported both shelled and unshelled. Peanut kernels are surrounded by a fine, brown seed coat, which contains antioxidants, which protect the kernels against the penetration of atmospheric oxygen and thereby prevent them from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity). Oil content: - 20 - 60% - 42 - 52% - 40 - 50%
OILWELL CASING Threads on ends are particularly liable to damage by rough handling, even though "thread protectors" are fitted. Threaded ends so damaged may be cut and rethreaded in the oilfields, where special machinery is usually available. Bends and dents, if not too severe, may also be straightened, but, as oil well casing is subject to high pressure, such repairs must be tested and inspected by technical processes which are expensive.
OLEOMARGARINE (See Fats)
OLIVE OIL Olive oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained by pressing the flesh of the fruit of the olive tree. It is a fine, high-quality edible oil. Olive oil is of a light yellow to golden yellow color and has the typically slightly sweet odor and flavor of olives. Cold-pressed olive oil is also known as virgin olive oil, which is particularly valuable. It is highly fluid, bright and clear. Hot-pressed olive oil is brown (2nd pressing oil). Excessive heat encourages damage by increasing acidity.
OLIVES Casks of olives arriving with a shriveled appearance due to the loss of brine in which they were shipped should be replenished with brine of proper strength and allowed to stand for about three weeks; the olives may then recover their normal appearance. The success of this method, however, depends on the length of time the olives have remained without brine and their freedom from mold growth. If they are blackened in appearance, the renewal of the brine may not have any effect. A white deposit is not indicative of damage due to external causes, but may result from incomplete fermentation during pickling. Subject to bacterial decomposition, which is usually shown by an offensive odor.
ONIONS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
ORES Ore shipments are transported from the mines to the loading vessel by various means, including rail, truck or by barge, and a certain loss may occur during transit and during loading operations. In many cases the weight of the cargo loaded is measured by taking the draft of the vessel, but the weight so ascertained is not absolutely reliable, particularly when the vessel is moving in a swell or when there is a movement of the water due to wind. In calm weather and under normal conditions measurements draft readings are generally reliable. Shipped weights are sometimes provided by a weighbridge, prior to shipment, but such weights are not necessarily evidence of the quantity loaded, by reason of scale miscalibration and the loss which may take place during the actual loading operations, particularly if the ore is dry and dusty. Similarly, methods of determining the arrived weight at the port of discharge vary and are subject to the same considerations. The quantity outturned may also vary due to the drying out of the or in wet weather the ore is likely to contain an excess over and above its natural moisture content. In some mines the pit being worked may be deeper than the level of an adjacent river and the ore extracted may therefore have an excessive moisture content. It is usual, however, for the moisture content of the ore to be determined at the time of shipment by a chemical analysis of samples, and it is customary for the ore to be bought on the calculated dry weight.
OURICOURI WAX Subject to loss in weight due to chafing and seepage through containers.
OX BLOOD (Dried) Packed usually in bags, generally of 196 lb. gross. Should be dry and stowed in a well ventilated space. Absorbs moisture and is liable to over heating and spontaneous combustion.
OYSTER SHELL If this commodity is not properly treated, it may be subject to infestation by vermin.
PACKING PAPER Packing paper is the generic name for various types of paper used for packaging goods. A distinction is drawn between the following types of packing paper, for example. - Kraft paper is a very high-strength packaging paper, made from unbleached or bleached sulfate pulp or equivalent fibers. Sometimes, semichemical pulp is also used in production. - Due to its high strength and moisture resistance, kraftliner is used as an outer and intermediate ply, especially in corrugated board. The high strength is achieved thanks to the virgin fiber used in the production of kraftliner, which has a low recycled fiber content. Its basis weight is over 120g/m2. - Testliner, like kraftliner, is used for the outer and intermediate plies of corrugated board. However, its strength is not quite as high as that of kraftliner, as it has a higher recycled fiber content. - As its name would suggest, kraft sack paper is primarily used for sack/bag production. It is distinguished by elevated elasticity. - Kraft tissue is the term used for kraft paper with a basis weight of below g/m2.
PAINTS Water-based paints are subject to attack by mold or bacteria while in storage, unless protected. Leakage from drums of paint, even if small, will in time cause the evaporation of the solvent contained in the paint. Leakage may be the result of the drums not having been stowed right side up, with consequent bursting of the heads. Leakage of solvent or varnish from a paint will cause the balance of the paint to be disturbed and may render the product useless. Paints are liable to damage from such causes as: (a) Stowage too near sources of heat where high temperatures will accelerate putrefaction and/or breaking of emulsion. (b) Stowage where the paint is subjected to extreme cold when the emulsion may break, the oil and water being not remissible. (c) Contamination of product by seawater seeping into poorly sealed containers, which would render goods unusable. See also CANNED GOODS and PIGMENTS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PALM KERNEL OIL (Palm Nut Oil, Palm Seed Oil) Palm kernel oil is a white to yellowish oil of vegetable origin which is solid at normal temperatures and is obtained from the kernels of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). It is one of the best oils. Palm kernel oil is different from palm oil, which is obtained from the flesh of the fruit.
PALM KERNELS (See Oilseeds)
PALM OIL Palm oil is a dark yellow to yellow-red oil (high carotene content) of vegetable origin obtained by pressing or boiling the flesh of the fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Palm oil differs from palm kernel oil, the latter being obtained from the kernels of the oil palm. Excessive heat will cause bleaching and affect color. Palm oil loses its red color when exposed to light, but this loss of color does not affect its value for ordinary purposes. Loss in weight may occur if the containers are not of good quality. Such loss may be high if subjected to conditions of heat. If palm oil is stored in drums in a well-ventilated space there is little danger of damage, but the oil should not be allowed to become too hot, as it is subject to more rapid deterioration at high temperatures. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
PAPER (See under individual headings - Newsprint, Wrapping Paper, etc.)
PAPER BAGS Certain types of paper and adhesive used to secure the sides and bottoms of certain types of paper bags are liable to give rise to rapid formation of mold and rotting of the bags around the adhesive. The bags may appear to be perfectly dry, and no external evidence of mold present.
PAPER BALES Paper is a flat material made from fibers of predominantly vegetable origin by dewatering a fiber suspension to produce a fiber felt which is compressed and dried. It is made from wood (chemical pulp, mechanical pulp), waste paper, rags or straw. The upper limit for the basis weight of paper is 150 g/m2.
PARAFFIN WAX The wax will melt at about l00 degrees F but it is understood that this change of state does not affect the value of the commodity. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PARSLEY FLAKES Parsley flakes are edible and are used for addition to food products such as a flavoring in soups. The flakes are packed 30 lb. corrugated cartons lined with waxed paper, and the commodity is subject to deterioration if in transit for any length of time. Although there may be no evidence of external damage these goods are apt to lose their original color due either to excessive heat or long delay in shipment.
PEACHES, PEARS, PEAS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
PEANUT OIL Peanut oil, a high-quality oil, is of vegetable origin and is obtained from skinned peanut kernels by cold pressing. Peanut oil is light yellow in color and is one of the most important vegetable oils.
PEAT MOSS Contains up to 40% of moisture. Bales may easily change weight by drying up or absorb humidity from air or rain. These fluctuations do not influence the quality of this commodity.
PELLETS ALFALFA PELLETS - Alfalfa pellets are made from ground alfalfa hay (alfalfa meal). Alfalfa hay is a dried green fodder which contains protein as well as valuable vitamins and minerals. A suitable binder (e.g. 1 - 3% of molasses, fat or colloidal clays) is added to this material and the composition is then pressed under high pressure in pelletizing machines or extruders to form cylindrically shaped pellets. From a transportation standpoint, pellets generally have the same characteristics as the original plant residues, in particular in terms of the product's oil and water content. A distinction is drawn between expeller pellets and extraction meal pellets depending on their origin. Grain size: diameter approx. 3 - 7 mm, length approx. 6 - 25.4 mm (approx. 50% may have been reduced to powder by abrasion) Oil content: 1.7 - 3.6% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS CORN GLUTEN PELLETS - Corn gluten pellets are also known as gluten feed pellets. These pellets are obtained from gluten feed (residues from starch production from wheat and corn, such as husks and gluten particles) by adding a suitable binder (e.g. 1 - 3% of molasses, fat or colloidal clays) and then pressing the composition under high pressure in pelletizing machines or extruders to form cylindrically shaped pellets. From a transportation standpoint, pellets generally have the same characteristics as the original plant residues, in particular in terms of the product's oil and water content. A distinction is drawn between expeller pellets and extraction meal pellets depending on their origin. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 6.35 - 12.7 mm, length approx. 19.05 - 50.8 mm Oil content: 0.15 - 0.9% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS SOYBEAN MEAL PELLETS - Soybean meal pellets are produced from ground soybean expeller or extraction meal. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 10 - 30 mm Oil content: 1.5 - 7.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS WHEAT MILL RUN PELLETS - Unlike wheat bran pellets, wheat mill run pellets are produced from wheat mill runs, i.e. residues from the wheat milling process with a considerable flour content. The oil content of wheat mill run pellets depends upon the comminution rate of the particular residues. See also Alfalfa Pellets. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS BREWER'S GRAIN PELLETS - Brewer's grain pellets are produced from dried spent grain by adding a suitable binder (e.g. 1 - 3% of molasses, fat or colloidal clays). Spent grain is the residue from the malt mashed in brewing beer. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 9.5 mm, length approx. 12.7 mm (maximum grain size) Oil content: 3.6 - 7.9% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS CITRUS PELLETS - Citrus pellets are produced from orange peel, specifically from citrus waste, the residue originating usually from several citrus fruit varieties which includes the peel, pulp and seeds. Pelletizing reduces volume 1.7 fold, so permitting better utilization of transport and storage capacity. Citrus pellets may also be produced from citrus extraction meal, which is obtained during oil extraction from the seeds and is then pelletized. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter approx. 6 mm, length approx. 25 mm (maximum grain size) Oil content: 0.1 - 1.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS CORN PELLETS - Corn pellets are made from corn gluten, a residue from corn starch production. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Oil content: 4.2 - 5.4% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS COTTONSEED PELLETS - Cottonseed pellets are produced from ground cottonseed expeller or extraction meal. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 10 - 40 mm Oil content: 0.5 - 7.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS PEANUT PELLETS - Peanut pellets are produced from ground peanut extraction. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 1.5 - 40 mm Oil content: 0.5 - 1.5% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS RICE BRAN PELLETS - These pellets are obtained from rice bran, a by-product of rice threshing and polishing, by adding a suitable binder. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Grain size: diameter 6 mm, length 6 - 13 mm Oil content: 0.4 - 1.0% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS SUNFLOWER PELLETS - Sunflower pellets are produced from ground sunflower expeller or extraction meal by adding a suitable binder. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Oil content: 0.5 - 1.5% (from extraction meal) See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELLETS WHEAT BRAN PELLETS - Wheat bran pellets are made from wheat bran, a by-product of flour and grits production, which predominantly consists of husks and variable proportions of the endosperm. See also Alfalfa Pellets. Oil content: 1.7 - 2.1% See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PELTS (See Hides and Skins)
PEPPER Pepper is subject to a natural loss in weight through drying, and is liable to heat and sweat. It can be kept for a number of years without damage, but by absorption of moisture the pepper may show signs of mold. This can be dispersed by washing and drying without lowering the quality of the pepper, provided the pepper is not too badly affected. Peppercorns, whether black, white or green, are the dried fruits of the pepper plant (Piper nigrum) of the Piperaceae family. The evergreen pepper plant is a woody climber, which grows up to 4 m high on stakes. Its fruits are in spikes (up to 15 cm long) of 20 - 30 stone fruits, which change color from green to yellow to red during ripening. The initially green and later red berries contain a seed surrounded by a thin fruit wall. The pepper plant is indigenous to Malabar and is cultivated in all tropical countries. Green pepper is produced by washing the fully grown, but still green berries in brine straight after harvesting, so preventing the color change to brown caused by oxidation. Pepper is increasingly also being imported into Germany in this form/color. The peppercorns are frequently offered for sale in freeze-dried form. A substantially larger proportion is, however, imported in the form of white and black pepper, which are also obtained from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum). The unripe, unpeeled, dried, wrinkly fruits of a size of 3 - 6 mm are known as black pepper, while white pepper is obtained from the fully ripe fruit by removing (peeling) the outer pericarp after 2 - 3 days' fermentation and drying the seeds to yield smooth, yellow to dirty yellow peppercorns of a size of 2 - 4 mm. White pepper has a higher content of piperine and consequently has a hotter taste than black pepper. Fresh peppercorns contain approx. 5 - 9% piperine. Essential oils: - 4.6 - 9.7% piperine in black pepper - 4.8 - 10% piperine in white pepper See also CAPSICUMS.
PEPPER BLACK LAMPONG PEPPER - This pepper from Indonesia is gathered in an unripe condition and is shipped after drying. A certain amount of moisture may be retained, and it is not uncommon for this to result in the development of mold and a musty smell.
PETROLEUM ASH Is, among other things, a source of vanadium pentoxide, a necessary ingredient to the production of high grade spring steel. Will absorb moisture and gain or lose weight according to conditions of transport or storage. Increase in moisture content may cause rotting of the inner container. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PHARMACEUTICAL SYRUP (See Non-Diagnostic Syrup)
PHOSPHATES and SUPERPHOSPHATES These are highly corrosive if packed too fresh or if encountering humidity. The corrosion turns the shipping sacks a reddish brown and rots them to such an extent that they can be easily torn by the fingers. Subject to loss in weight due to seepage. See also IMDG Code. PHOSPHATE ROCK and/or FINES - A light brown to white rock which is sometimes crushed to make the phosphate fines. Varies in texture from a sandy powder to a lumpy material containing a large proportion of dust, and due to its free-flowing properties considerable loss may arise in course of handling. If the material is not perfectly free-flowing it cannot be used easily in the machinery set up for the manufacture of the acid phosphate and, although moisture contact does little or no damage, the commodity must be dried before it can be processed. SUPERPHOSPHATE - A rock phosphate treated with sulphuric acid. It is usually in the form of a fine powder which, if not well matured before shipment, may harden during transit. The commodity may be hardened to such an extent that mechanical equipment is necessary to break it up before discharge takes place. A dry, free running fertilizer slightly acid in character. Moisture damage will render the commodity sticky and pasty and reduce both the fertilizer and material value. The commodity may be dried by air, but this may be an expensive matter. Unduly high temperatures may cause the reversion of soluble phosphate to the insoluble form, with consequent reduction in value. Generally, superphosphates are liable to become wet in the vessel's hold and if this occurs considerable difficulty may be experienced in discharge. SUPERPHOSPHATES (Triple) - Similar to superphosphate, but as its name indicates is three times as concentrated. It is also much darker.
PHOSPHORIC ANHYDRIDE Usually packed in drums. If these arrive damaged, the phosphoric anhydride will rapidly absorb moisture from the air, thus forming meta, pyro or ortho-phosphoric acid, depending upon the amount of water absorbed and upon the conditions under which absorption takes place. In this condition, the phosphoric anhydride will be valueless as a drying agent, but can be used in the manufacture of phosphoric acid. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER Photographic paper is a fine grade of paper coated on both sides with polyethylene film and containing no extraneous substances. The coating ensures that the paper is resistant to water and chemicals, which is particularly advantageous during processing.
PICKLED FOODS (in casks) It has been found that deterioration is occasionally due solely to inherent vice, the concentration of salt it the brine being too low for proper preservation.
PICRIC ACID (See Acids). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PIG IRON There may be loss in weight due to scaling and shedding of foreign matter during course of transit and handling.
PIGMENTS Certain pigments deteriorate in contact with air because they absorb moisture from the atmosphere. There will be deterioration also if the material becomes wet in any other way. Pigments in paste form should not be allowed to become frozen at any time because this will alter their physical condition.
PIPE CLAY Has a tendency to rot bags, due possible to moisture content combined with the chemical property in the clay.
PISTACHIO NUTS (See Nuts and Kernels)
PITCH Requires similar precautions to asphalt. See also Asphalt. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PLANTS Plants often suffer from cold, frost, or from heat, sweating and desiccation. The plants when affected by cold or frost if suitably heated may recover completely or at least to a considerable extent. It is not unusual for shippers to send a certain amount of plants in surplus in order to make up for those which may die during transit. It is therefore necessary to count the sound plants instead of the damaged ones. Shrubs are shipped in large quantities in containers which are often insufficiently ventilated. The fleshy leaves ferment quickly and heat results which kills the twigs, but usually there is some life left in the lower stems and roots, so that the plants can be cut down and planted.
PLASTER OF PARIS May be ruined by water. If large quantities are involved, it may be worth while to heat, dehydrate and sell as gypsum or hydrated calcium sulphate.
PLASTICS With most resin and plastic emulsions freezing causes breakdown, which may take the form of partial or complete coagulation. Generally speaking, the coagulation can seriously mar the properties of paints or adhesives in which the emulsion might subsequently be used. This dispersed coagulum could be removed by filtration. Coagulation starts from the walls of the container and works inwards with progressive drop in temperature or repetition of the freeze/thaw process. Some emulsions are more sensitive to freezing than others; for example, all the polystyrene emulsions, because of their fine particle size and low colloidal protection, tend to be unstable to freeze/thaw conditions and will generally break down on a single freezing. Polyvinyl acetate emulsions vary considerably in their freeze/thaw stability. The large particle type is much more stable than the fine and will stand repeated freezing and thawing without showing any coagulation. The same emulsion plasticized with dibutyl phthalate is rather more sensitive, but even so will withstand several cycles of freezing and thawing without coagulation. Although by no means universally true, it is often the case that the thicker looking emulsions have the greater storage stability under cold conditions. This is because large particle size is usually associated with high viscosity and stability is enhanced by increase in particle size. The nature of the protective colloid, too, is critical, and some colloids, such as polyvinyl alcohol, are more effective than others, which include the ethylene oxide alcohol derivatives. If the emulsifying content is inadequate or unsuitable, or in the unlikely event of the water in the emulsion having too high a salt content, the emulsion may break up so that solidification occurs in the form of lumps. Some emulsions are prepared to withstand long periods of storage, others, owing to such inherent susceptibilities, may commence to break up within comparatively short periods. Plastic materials which become contaminated with dust, dirt, etc., may become useless for the production of high-grade articles. When this material is in dried form (molding powders, etc.) and is packed in paper bags, it is particularly liable to depreciation by reason of the bags coming into contact with foreign matters. Care is necessary in handling damaged bags to avoid contamination of the unexposed portion of their contents. The following are individual comments on various plastic materials for guidance in assessing the cause and extent of damage, and in the handling and treatment of plastic materials. 1. The effect of damage by (a) High humidity (b) Salt water (c) Fresh water (d) Treatment, if any 2. (a) Effect of damage by heat (b) Treatment, if any
PLASTICS PVC THICK SHEET (Polyvinyl Chloride) 1. (a) Unlikely to have any effect. ( & (c) Very little effect on colored materials, but haziness or opacity may be caused in clear sheeting with slight dimensional alterations in both colored and plain sheeting. (d) Prolonged air drying can be used provided too much heat is avoided. Reprocessing would not be economic and is unlikely to be satisfactory due to loss of plasticizers and deterioration caused by further heat treatment. Discoloration would also probably be experienced. 2. (a) Loss of embossing, dimensional change and adhesion of sheets. Under normal conditions this material is stable and should not suffer from any inherent vice. Should be stowed in a cool place. COATED PVC SHEET 1. (a) Mildew damage (b) Nil. 2. (a) Loss of surface texture and finish. Mold growth and sweating is possible under hot and humid conditions. Should be stored in a cool place. NYLON SHEET 1. (a), (b), (c) No effect 2. (a) Blocking or melting. PVC FLOOR TILES 1. (a), (b), (c) No effect 2. (a) Distortion Should be kept away from heat.
PLASTICS CELLULOID SHEET ROD, TUBE, FILM, FOIL, PROFILE SHAPES (See also IMDG Code & US CFR.) 1. (a) Little effect. ( & & (c) Damage to surface finish (d) Drying and reprocessing. 2. (a) Is highly flammable. Because of its flammability, this material must be kept away from excessive heat and naked lights. Requires special stowage, preferably between deck, away from boilers and other heat sources. CELLULOSE ACETATE MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) Would need to be pre-dried before molding. (b) Becomes useless as a molding compound. (c) Depends on the degree of saturation. If slight, pre-drying prior to molding might make it serviceable. Immersion in water for any length of time would make it useless as a molding compound. (d) (a) Drying: (b) None - doubtful whether there is any scrap value: (c) Drying or reprocessing. 2. (a) Softens at about 50 degrees - 90 degrees C according to type. Would decompose around 240 degrees C. (b) Molding granules at softening point would tend to form a solid, which would make it unserviceable as a molding material without reprocessing. Decomposed material is useless. Being a thermoplastic, temperatures above softening point are undesirable. Excessive humidity is harmful. Storage at excessive temperature may cause plasticizer loss without necessarily resulting in exudation, so that deterioration may not immediately be apparent. Should be stowed away from heat, preferably under deck.
PLASTICS "HOLOPLAST" PANELS 1. (a) Increase in superficial dimensions and thickness. (b) Increase in dimensions with blistering from prolonged contact of the laminates with water - approx. four weeks. Salt water can cause damage to laminated sheets with decorative surfaces. (c) As with (b). Dimensional changes can be adjusted by drying at low temperatures (say 60 degrees C) but if the material has reached the stage of being blistered nothing can be done to recover it. (d) In the drying process it is preferable that both surfaces of the laminates be treated simultaneously, otherwise warpage may result, although this should be of a temporary nature only. 2. (a) Warpage, change of surface texture, blistering or charring, depending on the intensity of the heat. (b) It is possible in some cases to readjust warpage and it is possible in the case of stove enameled laminates for the enameling process to be repeated but sheets which are blistered and charred are irrecoverable. This material has no inherent vice other than referred to above, but should be kept away from heat and stored in a dry, cool place - not on deck. THERMOSETTING LAMINATED SHEET 1. (a) Increase in superficial dimensions and thickness. (b) & (c) Increase in dimensions with blistering from prolonged contact of laminates with water - approx. four weeks. (d) No. 2. (a) Warping, change of surface texture, blistering or charring, depending on the intensity of the heat. (b) ) No. This material should not suffer from any inherent vice, but calls for storage in a dry place. Hooks should not be used.
PLASTICS ALKYLD MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) Material cannot be molded satisfactorily. Electrical and mechanical properties seriously impaired or reduced to unacceptable levels. (b) Material is irrecoverably damaged. (c) Material cannot be molded satisfactorily. Electrical and mechanical properties reduced to unacceptable levels. (d) It is sometimes possible to recover part of the value of the material damaged under conditions (a) and (c) by reprocessing on the original manufacturing plant. 2. (a) Material hardens and is irrecoverably damaged. The material should be stored in a cool place below deck. PHENOLIC MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) Material cannot be molded satisfactorily. Electrical and mechanical properties seriously impaired or reduced to unacceptable levels. (b) Material is irrecoverably damaged. (c) Material cannot be molded satisfactorily. Electrical and mechanical properties reduced to unacceptable levels. (d) It is sometimes possible to recover part of the value of material damaged under conditions (a) and (c) by reprocessing on the original manufacturing plant. 2. (a) Material hardens and cannot be recovered. The material should be stowed in a cool place below deck. POLYTHENE SHEET 1. (a), (b), (c) No effect. (d) Material can be washed and dried. Drying should take place at temperatures not above 150 degrees F. 2. (a) Material melts. This material is inert and very free of inherent vice, but should be kept away from heat.
PLASTICS CELLULOSE ACETATE SHEET ROD, TUBE, FILM, FOIL, PROFILE SHAPES 1. (a) Temporary effect: if 35% R.H. rising to 95% R.H. expansion of plastics 0.5% linear; properly packed no permanent distortion should result. (b) & (c) If immersed for longer than a few minutes warping would ensue later and on drying out. (d) Seawater contamination would need washing off with clean water. Warped sheets could be flattened in presses. Film and badly warped shaped articlea could be reworked only as scrap. 2. (a) Heat up to 140 degrees F, if not prolonged, and if articles properly packed, would not cause appreciable damage. If articles come under pressure from packing they may have surface markings impressed, or become distorted. (b) Sheets can be repolished at the manufacturers' factory. Exposed surfaces of some types of cellulose acetate plastics may develop mold on prolonged exposure to high humidity in warm climate. Stowage should be in a cool, dry place. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. POLYSTYRENE MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) No effect, providing moisture does not condense on the granules. (b) & (c) No chemical effect, but molding properties will be impaired. (d) Drying would restore quality, provided no other contaminants has been introduced, e.g. dust or dirt. 2. (a) Material softens, granules coalesce and finally may char and burn. (b) Material which has coalesced can be reground, provided no charring or discoloring has occurred, but has only scrap value. Polystyrene has a surface static electrical effect which attracts dirt, and therefore contaminates very easily from air, especially if the packages are broken. And contents exposed should be stowed under-deck away from heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PLASTICS POLYSTYRENE SHEET 1. (a) Little or no action. (b) & (c) There may be a tendency to slight swelling of surface, with possible distortion. 2. (a) Thermal distortion - local overheating may result in carbonization. (b) Slightly distorted sheets could be restraightened by heat and pressure. Contact with other plasticized thermoplastic sheet, e.g. cellulose acetate, should be avoided, due to tendency of plasticizer migration. The material should be stored in a cool place, away from direct sunlight, as certain modified polystyrene sheets are liable to impairment of physical properties as a result of contact with sunlight. SURFACE COATING RESINS 1. (a) Material in sealed containers not affected. In bags no permanent damage. (b) No effect on material in sealed containers. In bags, reclamation may be possible. (c) Sealed containers should protect material. In bags, it should be possible to reclaim. (d) Resins in bags may possible be dried, but complete removal of salt is not easy. 2. (a) The resin would probably be rendered unusable. Resins in general are heat reactive and must be kept away from heat. Being compounded of oils, natural resins, etc., they are to some extent inflammable and should accordingly be stowed in a cool place. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. POWDERED UREA RESINS 1. (a) Caking of powder. (b) Caking of powder, poor performance of glue solution owing to diluting effect. Short-circuiting of glue in high- frequency heating. (c) Caking of powder, poor performance of glue solution owing to diluting effect. 2. (a) The powder becomes insoluble in water. Should be stored away from heat, not on open deck. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PLASTICS LIQUID RESINS - Urea Formaldehyde, Phenol Formaldehyde, Resorcinol Formaldehyde 1. (a) No effect. (b) Poor performance due to dilution, "shorting" under high frequency heating. (c) Poor performance due to dilution. 2. (a) Progressive thickening of the liquid and even gelation if exposed too long or too severe. Generally shortens the storage life. Should be stored away from heat, preferably under deck. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. CATALYST HARDENERS AND FILLERS IN POWDER FORM 1. (a) Caking (b) Caking. "Shorting" if glue is to be used under high frequency heating. Possible destruction of active ingredients in specific cases. Effective proportions lowered by dilution. (c) Caking. Effective proportions lowered by dilution. Possible destruction of active ingredients in specific cases. (d) Drying may be effective in the case of (a) and (c). This should be done by good air circulation, not by high temperature. 2. (a) Possible destruction of active ingredients in specific cases. Should be stored away from heat, not on open deck. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. LIQUID HARDENERS AND CATALYSTS 1. (a) No effect (b) Effective proportions lowered by dilution. (c) Effective proportions lowered by dilution. 2. (a) Possible destruction of active ingredients in specific cases. Should be stored away from heat, not on open deck. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PLASTICS POLYVINYL ACETATE (P.V.A.) ADHESIVES 1. (a) No effect (b) & (c) Separation of constituents, breakdown of emulsion. 2. (a) No serious effect, unless temperature very high. Should be stored in a warm place. If allowed to freeze the emulsion is liable to break down, with consequent lumping and loss of adhesive properties. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. POLYETHYLENE FILM 1. (a), (b), (c) No effect 2. (a) Softening; distortion, and finally melting at 115 degrees C. Should be stored in a cool place, away from heat. PVC PRINTED SHEET 1. (a), (b), (c) Normally no effect, although under certain conditions staining could result. (d) If staining results this is usually permanent and cannot be removed. Staining could result if rolls of sheeting were submerged in salt or fresh water which was contaminated with oil, rust, or other materials. 2. (a) Excessive heat will melt the sheet and could cause the surfaces to stick together. If the sheet is embossed, heat may cause the embossing to be removed. Apart from the danger of the surfaces of the sheet sticking together under heat, most PVC printed sheeting is liable to develop a brown or black discoloration if exposed to a sulphite atmosphere, therefore the material should be stowed in a cool place, away from boilers, and from any possible contamination.
PLASTICS PVC EMULSIONS AND DISPERSIONS 1. (a) & (c) Unlikely to have any effect. (b) If extreme cases corrosion may penetrate through the drum, contaminating the contents. (d) If severe corrosion takes place contents might be discolored. In extreme cases, contents would be a total loss. 2. (a) Emulsions: Precipitation and total loss. Solutions: Would probably explode. (b) If heat exceeds 80 degrees - 90 degrees C contents will probably be a total loss. Emulsions are liable to damage by freezing, and, while they should not be exposed to extreme heat, require frost proof storage. Solutions, due to their flammability, should be stowed on deck. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. AMINOPLASTIC MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a), (b), (c) All three causes can seriously damage this material if the package protection fails. Normally the powders are shipped in moisture proof containers, either steel drums, fiber-board kegs with plastic liners or paper sacks with a waterproof layer, but if external damage destroys the waterproof layer then the material can be spoiled and rendered useless for molding good articles. (d) None. Attempts to dry out powder which has been damaged by humidity, salt water or fresh water are likely to result in other defects. 2. (a) High temperatures tend to make the powder difficult to mold by stiffening its flow. In extreme cases it can render the powder useless. This material requires cool stowage, below water line.
PLASTICS PVC MOLDING AND EXTRUSION MATERIAL 1. (a) & (c) Humidity adversely affects the processing of the product. (b) As for (a) but with additional deterioration of electrical characteristics. (d) Drying at 50 degrees - 80 degrees C would largely overcome the effect of high humidity and fresh water, but would not get rid of the contamination resulting from contact with salt water. 2. (a) Above 50 degrees C the material consolidates. (b) Further treatment will not rectify damage caused by excessivheat. POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) & (c) Adversely affects processing and the general appearance of moldings. (b) As for (a) but with additional deterioration of electrical properties. (d) Drying rectifies damage due to (a) and (c) but not that caused by (b). 2. (a) The product is not damaged by temperatures lower than 80 degrees C. NYLON MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a), (b), & (c) All three causes render the material unsuitable for use. (d) Vacuum drying would rectify damage caused by (a) and (c) but not that caused by (b). 2. (a) The product is not damaged by temperatures below 80 degrees C. Packages should be kept sealed, and require ordinary below-deck stowage. "FLUON" P.T.F.E. MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) No effect. (b) Adversely affects molding and electrical characteristics. (c) Adversely affects molding characteristics. (d) Drying would rectify damage caused by (a) and (c) but not that caused by (b). 2. (a) No damage results from temperatures below 200 degrees C, but above 250 degrees C toxic fumes may be evolved.
PLASTICS POLYTHENE MOLDING MATERIAL 1. (a) & (c) Adversely affects molding properties. (b) A for (a) but with additional deterioration of electrical properties. (d) Drying rectifies damage caused by (a) and (c) but not that caused by (b). 2. (a) The material consolidates at temperatures above 50 degrees C and melts 110 degrees C. "PERSPEX" ACRYLIC SHEET 1. (a) No effect on the product, but the protective paper is subject to mold growth. (b) & (c) Very little effect on the product itself, but water removed the protective paper coating and this leads to damage of the surface of the sheets. 2. (a) Temperatures above 50 degrees C are liable to damage the surface protection and may also cause the sheets to warp. Damp storage conditions should be avoided. LAMINATED IMPREGNATED WOOD 1. (a) Because of protective steps taken, risk of damage from this cause is negligible. (b) Material exposed to salt water should be regarded as scrap. (c) Immersion up to twelve hours probably harmless. (d) Material restored to its original condition by stoving at 105 degrees C for about a week. 2. (a) Permanent exposure up to 130 degrees C has negligible effect. Beyond that, certain distillations are apt to take place, but the time factor is important in assessing the amount of damage that would be caused. (b) Damage caused by heat cannot not be reversed. This material has no susceptibilities except surface growth of mold, and this is largely inhibited in tropical grades of the product. Such mold growth may easily be wiped off the surface. The material should receive cool storage.
PLASTICS LAMINATED SHEET, DECORATIVE 1. (a), (b), (c) Material is liable to warp and to blister and/or show other defects of appearance. (d) No. 2. (a) Material is liable to blister and become discolored and/or show other defects of appearance. It may also warp. (b) No. The material may support mold growth under prolonged conditions of high temperature and high humidity, and should therefore be stowed in a cool place below deck. "CORROPLAST" SHEETING 1. (a) Increase in superficial dimensions and thickness. (b) Increase in dimensions with blistering from prolonged contact of the laminates with water - approx. four weeks. Salt water can cause damage to laminated sheets with decorative surfaces, e.g. stoved enamel. (c) As with (b). Dimensional changes can be adjusted by drying at low temperatures (say 60 degrees C) but if the material has reached the stage of being blistered nothing can be done to recover it. (d) In the drying process it is preferable that both surfaces of the laminate be treated simultaneously, otherwise warpage may result, although this should be of a temporary nature only. 2. (a) Warpage, change of surface texture, blistering or charring, depending on the intensity of the heat. (b) It is possible in some cases to readjust warpage, and it is possible in the case of stove enameled laminates for the enameling process to be repeated, but sheets which are blistered and charred are irrecoverable. This material has no inherent vice other than referred to above, but should be kept dry, unpacked on arrival at destination and stored according to the manufacturers' instructions.
PLATE GLASS (See Glass)
PLUMBAGO (See Graphite)
PLUMS (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
POLLARDS A mixture of meal and bran. Subject to a natural loss in weight and liable to heat and sweat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
POONAC (See Brunak). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
POPPY SEED Poppy seeds are the oil-containing seeds found in the pods of the poppy Papaver somniferum, which belongs to the Papaveraceae family; the pods contain large numbers of small white, gray or bluish seeds. They are approx. 1 - 1.5 mm long, 1.1 mm wide and 0.9 mm thick. Poppy varieties with closed capsules are preferred, as the pores do not open, so minimizing losses during harvest. Oil content: - 42.5 - 50.8% - 45 - 50%
POTASH-MURIATE Hygroscopic crystalline salt, very soluble in water. Used for fertilizer purposes. If damaged by wetting, considerable loss of material may occur, owing to the high solubility, and a hard, set mass will be formed. Drying will not usually be worth while.
POTASSIUM CARBONATE Is a white, deliquescent, granular powder, which deteriorates on exposure to the atmosphere.
POTASSIUM METABISULPHITE Is comprised of white, crystalline crusts, which are soluble in water. On exposure, the crystalline crusts become damp, tinged with yellow, and undergo a chemical change. For example, instead of containing the customary 54% to 57% sulphur trioxide, the damaged portion on analysis may be found to contain only 20% to 22%
POTATOES (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
PRESSCLOTH (See Wool Presscloth)
PRINTERS' ROLLER COMPOSITION Consists mainly of gelatine, glycerin, sugar and preservative. Contact with water weakens the texture and may render it useless for covering the rollers of printing machines.
PROVENDER A cattle feed consisting usually of a mixture of crushed grain and other fodder. Liable to heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
PYRETHRUM The dried flowers of a tropical plant used in pharmaceutical preparations. Water damage causes an increase in the moisture content, which absorbs the pyrethrum content of the flower so that the insecticidal value is correspondingly reduced. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
QUASSIA WOOD Subject to natural loss in weight due to drying out. An infusion of the wood is used medicinally; also as an insecticide. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
QUEBRACHO A heavy wood, mainly from Argentina, from which a tanning extract is obtained. Is subject to natural loss in weight. QUEBRACHO EXTRACT - Quebracho extract which has been subjected to heat may arrive with its packing rotted, contents damp and bags often sticking together. Contamination by water will solidify the product.
QUININE BARK (Cinchona Bark) (See Barks)
RABBIT SKINS (See Hides and Skins)
RAPESEED CAKES Cakes made from the residue of rape seed after the oil has been extracted; used for animal feed. Liable to heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RAPESEED OIL Rapeseed oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from crushed rapeseed by pressing or extraction. It is a light yellow to brownish yellow oil. Rapeseed oil is one of the most important vegetable oils. For centuries, humans and animals could not consume rapeseed oil, as it had a high erucic acid content.
RATTAN (Chair Cane) Chair cane consists of the 0.5 - 4.5 cm thick shoots of the rattan palm (Calamus rotang), a member of the palm family (Palmae), and is also known as Spanish cane or rattan cane. It comes from climbing palms in particular from Indonesia, which climb up to the crowns of the highest jungle trees and form dense thickets. The up to 4.5 cm thick, generally 50 m long pliable climbing stems are cut off approx. 1 m above the ground and pulled down out of the trees. Rattan is exported in various forms: whole, peeled and matted, decored and sometimes as broken chair cane. It is also supplied in washed or unwashed form. The following are the main varieties: - "Borneo" varieties - "Celebes" varieties - "Malaysia" varieties - "Sumatra" varieties
RATTAN AND MALACCA CANE Used in the manufacture of basket-work, chairs, etc. Rattans are exported in various forms - whole, core, peel and sometimes split rattan and may be either washed or unwashed. Whole rattan should be of natural yellow color, bleached, washed and free of knots. Peel is graded according to size and color. First grade is even straw color and thoroughly flexible, second and third grades not so good in color and less flexible, lower grades not even in color. Core is priced according to flexibility, evenness of color and cleanliness. Best grade known as "extra selected" and lowest "common." Rattan core must be dry and, if shipped in a damp condition, may become moldy in transit. Unless kept cool and with proper moisture content, rattan core is liable to become desiccated, which renders it brittle and unfit for the purpose intended. The unwashed type is not affected by contact with salt or fresh water, not is it greatly affected by oil substances, as these can be washed off. The washed type will suffer in appearance on contact with salt or fresh water or oily substances, but both types can be washed by being immersed in fresh running water with a layer of clean sand underneath. The canes are then rubbed with the sand until clean and then hung up to dry in strong sunlight. If either the rattan or cane are immersed in water for some time the center core should be inspected, as it is here that the first evidence of rotting will appear. This process will not, however, remove oil which has penetrated the outer skin. See also BAMBOO CANES.
RAYON PIECE GOODS Fully pressed bales showing no outward signs of damage may open up with the material showing what appears to be water marks through out the length of the pieces. The marks show as shiny waves similar to the graining in timber and are induced through pressure. Buyers sometimes stipulate bale packing as being cheaper than cases, and if the bales are stored unopened the above is likely to occur.
RED KIDNEY BEANS (See Beans, dried)
RED OXIDE OF IRON ORE When wet by rain or salt water, it becomes necessary to dry it out; it should then recover its original properties. See also ORES
REFINED OILS After contamination with foreign substances may be re-refined, and by virtue of the high value of this commodity this is usually an economic proposition. Oil contaminated by water can usually be separated to a great extent in storage tanks by allowing the water to settle to the bottom and then draining off. It is impossible to effect clarification of the entire quantity -some residue will always remain. Where oils are shipped in drums immediate steps should be taken to decant contents of leaky drums into sound drums. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
RESIN Subject to natural loss in weight due to chafing and crushing. For synthetic resins see PLASTICS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RICE Rice belongs to the sweet grass family (Gramineae) and is a type of cereal originally from East Asia, the term "cereals" covering the grain fruits of cultivated grasses (spikes or ears in the case of wheat, rye, barley and corn; panicles in the case of oats and rice). Rice is an annual panicle grass with uniflorous spikelets and is one of the oldest plants cultivated by humans (e.g. for 5000 years in India). It is a "glumed" type of cereal, which means that the glumes (dry-skinned leaves in the flower area of the grasses) remain stuck to the grain, as is the case with most types of barley and oats and with millet. In addition, the rice grain is also surrounded by a fine, silver-gray to reddish-yellow or red skin, the "silver skin", over which the glumes are located. Rice is cultivated under water in flooded fields (requiring artificial irrigation, high yield) and as upland rice (where the land is merely watered). Depending on the shape and size of the grain, rice is subdivided into three basic grades: short grain, medium grain and long grain. These are further subdivided, depending on the degree of preparation, into: unprepared rice, white rice, broken rice and parboiled rice. Rice is liable to sweat, especially new crop. When rice arrives in a damaged condition, immediate steps are necessary for its treatment and/or disposal, as its value depends largely on the alternative use to which it can be put, such as brewing, seasoning, paste and fertilizer. Time is an important factor, as delay aggravates damage. When damaged by seawater a not unpleasant smell is given off; when damaged by fresh water a putrid smell results.
RICE DUST (Boussir) The chaff and waste of rice, commonly used as an animal feed. Liable to heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RICE BOILED RICE - May suffer natural loss in weight, but if properly milled and processed this loss should be very small. Difficulty arises as to how to tell whether, when the cargo was loaded, it had been in fact properly processed. As a very rough guide, Parboiled Rice which has not been properly processed, i.e., dried down to 13% moisture content. will, on arrival, have a pronounced floury coating on the grains. The bags, in extreme cases, would show signs of sweat damage.
RICE BROKEN RICE - As for white rice mentioned below. Loss in weight may be considerably increased unless, at the time of shipment, great care is taken with the bags and sewing.
RICE CARGO RICE - rice which is provided for maritime transport and consists of 80% white rice and 20% paddy rice. Due to this mixing ratio, the rice remains drier and harder during maritime transport, because the coarse-hulled paddy grains cause loosening and thus better airing of the rice batches. For this reason, cargo rice is the least susceptible to damage.
RICE PADDY RICE - unprepared rice.
RICE PARBOILED BRAN - Oil content about 23%. Subject to a natural loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RICE RICE BRAN - Rice bran is combustible, and can generate sufficient heat to create a fire. It is not possible to the degree of heat necessary to bring about spontaneous combustion. Certain carriers of the commodity would reject such a cargo if the temperature was more than 105 degrees F at the time of loading. Rice bran will burn by itself and would probably ignite if brought into contact with fire from some other source. There have been cases where it is known that rice bran has been the root cause of a fire. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RICE WHITE RICE - White or polished rice: prepared rice which has had the silver skin and seed coat beneath it removed by polishing. May suffer natural loss in weight, is subject to heating and throws off moisture. Damage may result from insufficient dunnage and lack of ventilation. It sometimes happens that grains of rice stick lightly together in the interior of the sacks. This in not necessarily due to wetting buy may be the result of defective glazing. Rice which has been in stock for over two months is liable to infestation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RICE WHITE RICE BRAN - Oil content about 15%. Subject to natural loss in weight. The color of the bran is no indication of damage, as color may vary from white to rufus red. Bran which has been damaged by heating has an unmistakable "cooked" odor. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ROLLER COMPOSITION (PRINTERS) (See Printers Roller Composition)
ROOFING FELTS Roofing felt is a crude paperboard impregnated with bituminous impregnating agents (tar, asphaltic bitumen); it is produced in web form and supplied in rolls. Both sides are covered with mineral materials (e.g. sand) in order to help prevent the coating from running off when exposed to heat or from sticking together in the rolls and to provide protection from atmospheric conditions. A distinction is drawn between tarred board and bitumen board.
ROOFING SLATES Liable to breakage, although, when packed in crates so that the contents can be readily seen, breakage is usually found to be less than if packed in a complete case. Suppliers sometimes forward a quantity additional to the invoiced amount as an allowance for breakage, and this should be taken into account when deter mining loss. Partly broken slates have a small value as corner pieces. Should be unaffected by immersion in fresh or salt water: only claim should be in respect of cleaning, i.e. removal of silt, etc. See also TILES.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) May be subject to a natural loss in weight due to loss of moisture content, or to chafing and consequent seepage from containers. The extent of any such loss will be dependent upon the condition of the roots at the time of shipment, the nature of the voyage and handling, storage and stowage. Loss may be enhanced by poor packing. Due to roots being prone to loss of weight they are often sold on the basis of the arrived weight. This is particularly applicable to dry ginger. If not properly dried before shipment, some roots may develop mold growth. Roots are also subject to infestation and are affected by humidity. If roots should become badly wetted during transit they may rot. This, however, is not always the case, and certain roots, after being cleaned, dried and scraped to remove mold or foreign matter, may have a good market value.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) GINGER (Fresh) - Ginger is the washed, irregular-shaped rootstock (rhizome) of the reed-like ginger plant of the family Zingiberaceae, which is cultivated in the tropics and grows as tall as 1.5 m. The rootstock shape resembles a human hand (hands or claws). Fresh ginger has a characteristic, bitingly pungent, slightly sweetish and aromatic flavor, which is more intense than is the case with dried ginger. Oil content: Essential oils: - 0.8 - 5.0%, in particular zingiberene and zingiberol
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) ACONITE ROOT - Roots of the Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) from which aconite is extracted for medicinal purposes.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) BARBASCO ROOT (Cube Root) - Shipped in burlap-covered bales. Is subject to sweating. If shipped in a very dry condition the roots throw off a good deal of powder containing rotenone, a powerful insecticide and violent skin and throat irritant. This does not result in any depreciation in value.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) CASSAVA ROOT - See under MANIOC ROOT in this entry.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) GINGER (Dry) - Ginger is the washed, irregular-shaped rootstock (rhizome) of the reed-like ginger plant of the family Zingiberaceae, which is cultivated in the tropics and grows as tall as 1.5 m. The rootstock shape resembles a human hand (hands or claws). The way ginger is treated after harvesting and cleansing differs according to the country in which it is grown: for instance, in West Africa the rhizomes are dried without peeling, while in Bengal they are soaked in water overnight and superficially scraped; goods from Malabar or Bombay have the corky rind removed completely and in Jamaica ginger is washed in cold water, carefully peeled and re-soaked. The latter is particularly prized because of its fine aroma. If ginger has simply been washed and dried, but not peeled, it is known commercially as "black" or "green" ginger, while the peeled product is known as "white" ginger. With peeled ginger, the outer peel is removed with special knives prior to drying, while with "split" ginger the ginger tuber is split first to speed up the drying process. The rootstock treated in this way is then cut into slices or chunks and often immersed in or dusted with a lime solution to bleach it and protect it against pests However, this process has become less significant with the development of modern fumigation methods. Ginger has a characteristic, bitingly pungent, slightly sweetish and aromatic flavor. Oil content: Essential oils: - 0.8 - 5.0%, in particular zingiberene, zingiberol Subject to a natural loss in weight which may well be considerable. It is essential that ginger be properly dried to avoid premature appearance of mildew and breeding of weevils. Old stocks are particularly liable to deterioration, especially when stored in tropical climates. Easily damaged by contact with water. During the rainy season may become infested even without coming into contact with water. Complete immersion in fresh or salt water will not render this product a total loss. The ginger will require washing in clean fresh water, particularly if it has been subjected to immersion in salt water, the root being dried and scraped, if necessary, to remove mold. The consequent loss in weight in such circumstances can be considerable. The slackness of a bag does not necessarily imply that there has been a loss of contents; the ordinary cause of slackness is the pressure of the bags in stowage, which, in turn, results in loss of bulk due to the nature of the commodity.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) LICORICE ROOT - Contamination by fresh or salt water will render this commodity moldy.
ROOTS (Medicinal, etc.) MANIOC ROOT (Cassava Root, Mandioc) - The large black roots of a shrub from which starch is extracted. This meal or flour is known as Brazilian Arrowroot and is used in the manufacture of Tapioca, etc. Should be white, hard and well shelled. With time, in consequence of many sortings, the hardness tends to disappear. Manioc roots should be stored in a dry and fresh place whenever possible. Storage in damp places or placing sacks before properly dry may bring about the formation of a greenish mold. In slight cases, this is merely a film which disappears on brushing. In serious cases the Manioc may be of dark green or black appearance, being rotten, which may be observed by dark patches on the sacks at the places contaminated. In fresh produce, live weevil can only be discovered by cutting open the pieces. A soft sack indicates that the produce is old and on the way to becoming powdered, a quantity of white dust being noted when handled. If the dust given off has a color other than white, it may be a sign that the manioc is adulterated.
ROSIN A product of the oil of turpentine. Liable to damage by fire if subjected to undue heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ROUNDWOOD Roundwood is the term used to describe logs cut to specific lengths across the grain.
RUBBER Rubber which is hastily milled and insufficiently dried has a higher moisture content than usual. Excess moisture is a disadvantage in itself as the amount of actual rubber in a bale of known weight is naturally less by the weight of water contained therein. Moisture damage to rubber, resulting in mold, is sometimes caused by use of green dunnage. The wetting of the rubber by the dunnage is due to sap, not fresh water. The mold formed by moisture has no influence upon the technological prop. of the rubber, although it gives the sheet a dirty appearance. If rubber sheets in naked bales are stowed in the ship's hold to any considerable height, they are liable to become blocked into a solid mass, the bales going out of shape in consequence. It is not considered when this occurs that the value of the rubber is in any way affected. If crepe in bales is stowed near boilers it may tend to become tacky, in which state the value is affected. Oil acts as a solvent. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RUBBER CLOTH Deterioration and tendency to perish may not necessarily be due to heat during transit, but to inferior quality and manufacture. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RUBBER LATEX (See Latex). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RUM Rum is a fine spirit, obtained by distillation from sugar cane, sugar cane molasses and other residues of sugar processing. The main distillate, which is produced in pot stills (distillation boilers), has an alcohol content of 80 - 88 vol.%. It is then stored in oak kegs. Rums are classed as follows: - Original rum: produced in the exporting countries. No changes are made in the importing country. - Overseas rum: imported with an alcohol content of 75 vol.% and reduced to a drinking strength of 40 - 45 vol.%. A distinction is drawn between the following types of rum on the basis of their aroma: - Cuban rum: light, brandy-like aroma - Jamaica rum: intense, full-bodied aroma - Martinique rum: strong, heavy aroma Although rum does not spoil easily due to its high ethyl alcohol content, as a cargo it does require care, to prevent quality degradation. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
RUTILE SAND A blackish-brown sand of a hard abrasive nature used for a variety of industrial metallurgical purposes. Also used in the preparation of certain fluxes and alloys and for coating welding rods. Moisture does not alter the material or cake it, but if it becomes too wet a claim for drying might be expected from some consumers. Logs usually arise from bad handling, such as dropping bags from a sling, or from the use of stevedores' hooks. Any sweepings that may be recovered from holds might be contaminated with dust and dirt. Claims do not usually arise unless such contamination is excessive. On the other hand, contamination with sugar, syrup, similar solubles, or with oil, is likely to make the material unusable.
SAFFLOWER (Carthamin) The dried flower of an oriental herb used for dyeing and also for medicinal purposes. Liable to be damaged by heating and moisture.
SAFFRON Saffron is produced from the dried, yellowish orange 2.5 - 4 cm long stigmas of the purple-flowered saffron crocus Crocus sativus of the iris family (Iridaceae), native to Southern Europe and the Middle East. The stigmas are in the form of tubes which open out at the top into a funnel shape. It is the most valuable, most expensive spice in the world. Harvesting saffron is very labor-intensive: each blossom has three stigmas, which are picked by hand in the morning, before the heat of the day, and then dried for 15 - 30 minutes. The blossoms are thrown away. Saffron has an aromatic, hot and slightly bitter taste. Saffron contains a water-soluble coloring matter known as crocin, which provides a golden-colored dye which is effective even at a dilution of 1:100,000. 1 kg of saffron represents 100,000 to 200,000 blossoms, the stigmas of which have to be removed by hand, which explains the high price and the frequent cases of adulteration with parts of other plants and other organic or inorganic substances. Oil content: 0.4 - 1.3% essential oils, in particular picrocrocin (saffron-bitter)
SAGE LEAVES Sage (Salvia officinalis) is native to the Mediterranean region and belongs to the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Sage leaves are the dried green, downy, oval leaves of common sage or garden sage. The flavor of the leaves is spicy/bitter, and their sage oil content gives them an aromatic odor. Oil content: sage leaves have an oil content of 1 - 1.5% (essential oils).
SAGO FLOUR A delicate commodity, easily damaged by odors. Subject to loss in weight but this is dependent on the moisture content before shipping, ventilation and heat. Sago flour should not be stowed near the boilers. Sago flour from Borneo is at times shipped improperly dried, and the dampness may cause the sago bags to rot. When bags are slightly wetted, this may result in mustiness, which it may prove possible to remove by drying in warm air. The quality of commodity is unaffected.
SAGO SUBSTITUTE (See Tapioca Pearl)
SALIGNA GUM LOGS Dependent upon humidity conditions at time of loading, logs tend to split while in transit and under normal circumstances gain or lose weight during passage.
SALT (COMMON) "Salt" is the colloquial term for the chemical compound sodium chloride (NaCl). It is principally obtained by four processes: - by mining of rock salt. In Germany, approx. 90% of all NaCl is obtained in this way. - by the evaporation of natural or artificial saturated aqueous NaCl solutions. This may proceed with the aid of brines, which are obtained by pumping water into underground salt beds or from salt works ("boiled salt"). - by evaporation of saline seawater collected in large ponds of water from salt lakes in hot countries (such as Spain or Southern France). This salt is also called sea salt. - as a by-product of seawater desalination for obtaining drinking or process water. Salt has a solid, crystalline structure and is very hygroscopic. It attacks metals when combined with moisture. (Also known as VACUUM SALT) When shipped in bags contact with metal results in rusting of the metal, which stains and rots the bags. When handled, the bags burst at these points, with a consequent loss of contents. Should the sacks be repaired, careful attention should be paid to the re-sewn portions of the bags, as this loss might be confused with that due to "normal tearing." The salt nearest to the torn part of the bag is usually rust stained. Damaged salt, if unfit for the purpose intended, may attract a reasonable figure for agricultural purposes.
SALTED FISH (See Fish)
SALTPETRE This is essentially a hygroscopic product. Preferably packed in metal drums. Saltpetre may be packed in bags, but this is not recommended. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SAMP A form of crushed corn. Liable to heat and subject ordinary loss in weight due to loss of moisture content. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SANITARY EARTHENWARE (See Earthenware)
SCORIA (Slag; Dross) The byproducts of mineral ores. A dusty cargo liable to suffer loss in weight. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SCOTCH TAPE (See Cellulose Tape)
SCRAP METAL Rails, horseshoes, etc., are frequently shipped dirty and with heavy scale adhering. This will result in a loss of weight during transit through shedding of foreign matter and rust. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SEAL OIL Brown seal oil is an animal oil obtained from the bodies of common seals and other marine mammals. It is a fatty oil, obtained from the fatty tissue of seals. Seal oil has an unpleasant odor and a characteristic taste, similar to whale oil. When shipped in barrels may be subject to loss in weight due to the absorption of some oil by the containers.
SEEDLAC (See Shellac)
SEEDS (General) The main causes of damage to seeds are contact with water, heating, fermentation and sprouting, spontaneous combustion, and infestation. Seeds are liable to absorb moisture from the atmosphere and in consequence develop mold. Seeds which have become damp, wet or heated should be immediately dried, but it should be borne in mind that exposure to the sun may kill the life of some seeds. The sound seeds should be separated from the damaged if this is an economic proposition. Damaged seeds should be disposed of as soon as possible. Seeds are liable to heat and deteriorate if not properly dried before shipment. Deterioration may also set in if seeds are kept for any length of time in conditions of excessive heat. Loss in weight may be due to loss of moisture content, heating infestation, or seepage. Seeds from some countries may contain a percentage of fine dust or sand which can be partly lost in transit. Infestation may be caused by insects inherent in the seeds before shipment. See also
SEEDS (General) OILSEEDS. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SEEDS (General) AJOWAN - An aromatic seed from India used in cooking and pharmacy. Provides thymol and ajowan oil. Heats readily. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SEEDS (General) ANISEED - The seed of the herb anise. Dampness or wetting blackens the seeds, but depreciates their value very little unless they get moldy, in which case the product is unserviceable. Seeds also become black when they are distilled; they then have no commercial value.
SEEDS (General) ANNATTO SEED (INDIAN) - The plant is cultivated for the dye which is contained in the outer coat or layer on the seed; the seeds are dry and are not normally subject to loss in weight unless roughly handled, when part of the coloring material is lost. If stowed in a hot place the seeds may suffer some loss in weight, but they do not deteriorate. Overheating results in the outer covering of the seed being easily pulverized. Fresh and salt water affect the seeds adversely. Depending on the degree of contact, seeds will lose their bright red appearance, becoming blackish. Seeds which are so damaged should be separated as soon as possible from sound seeds and both sound and damaged well dried. Seeds not too badly damaged may be disposed of in the form of powder in order to fetch a better price.
SEEDS (General) CORIANDER SEEDS - The seed of a tropical plant used for cooking and flavoring. If damaged as a result of contact with water, provided the seeds are not too badly affected they may fetch a better price in powder form.
SEEDS (General) MUSTARD SEED - If packed in a moist state there is a risk of fermentation. Heat, unless excessive, usually has no bad effect on mustard seed, but any contact with water, whether fresh or salt, results in the immediate deterioration of quality. Sale of damaged seeds should be arranged with the least possible delay.
SEMETIN A form of bran commonly used for animal feed. Liable to heat, and to damage by humidity. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SENNA Indian senna is usually shipped in press-packed bales. Damage caused by water can be readily treated by sawing off the damaged portion.
SENNA LEAVES AND PODS (See Leaves)
SENNA SIFTINGS (See Leaves)
SESAME OIL (Gingelly Oil) Sesame oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from sesame seeds by pressing. The sesame plant is similar in type to oil-seed rape and is cultivated in particular in the East Indies. Cold-pressed sesame oil is light yellow, has a mild flavor and is odorless. Hot-pressed sesame oil is darker and has a more pungent taste.
SHEA NUTS (See Oilseeds)
SHEEPSKINS (See Hides and Skins)
SHELLAC (Seedlac, Lac, etc.) Lac is the resinous exudation of a specie of insect. When crushed, washed and dried it is known as seedlac. Shellac is the name given to the article of commerce when manufactured into flakes. It is used in the manufacture of sealing wax, gramophone records, varnishes, etc. This commodity is very liable to solidify or block under changing climatic conditions or due to moisture, heat or pressure. This blocking is encouraged when low grades are mixed with the better qualities. Shellac of old crop will block more readily than that of new crop. Shellac is usually shipped in a free or flaky form, but in some trades it is actually shipped in blocks. In the event of complaint of blocking, evidence should be obtained to show whether or not shellac was shipped in a solidified condition, or has become solidified due to storage under the conditions mentioned above. Blocked lac is often erroneously considered to be damaged, but while it may not be as attractive in appearance as free or flaky lac, blocking does not necessarily, seriously damage or change the essential qualities of the lac. Normally lac is ground before use, whether it be in free or blocked state. There would be additional charges for grinding block lac than for free goods. Therefore, when lac reaches destination in a blocky state, the buyer incurs a loss to the extent of these higher charges. When making an assessment for loss, it should be remembered that blocking of lac is not unnatural, and that this fact is well-known and appreciated through out the world. Lac is liable to damage by contact with water. This type of damage may be caused by lac remaining in water or by it being stored in damp and enclosed spaces. The extent of loss will depend upon the duration of these conditions. Water damaged lac is discolored, brittle, and can be crumbled without difficulty. This damage may be noticeable on the outer part of packages and its extent may be judged either by weighing the lac if it is in free condition and therefore separable. When the lac is found in blocky condition and can be inseparated by breaking the contents of a package and measuring the comparative good and damaged parts. The extent of loss by water damage is not easily determinable, because a great deal depends upon the quality of the lac and the use to which it is put. High grades of lac, when water damaged, may become totally unfit for the type of work intended. It is, therefore, suggested that, where practicable, the assistance of trade experts be sought in assessing water damaged lac. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SILK Silk is the name for the protein fibers obtained from the cocoons of various animal species and used as textile raw materials. Artificial silks, on the other hand, are generally cellulose-based and have lost much of their popularity. Silk comes mainly from the filaments from the cocoon of the silk moth caterpillar (silkworm) (Bombyx mori), whose life cycle extends from the egg stage through the caterpillar stage and pupa stage to the moth stage. Silkworms are fed with fresh mulberry foliage until they pupate. The silk filament forming the cocoon is 3500 - 4000 m long and 25 um thick. Kiln drying prevents the moth from hatching and thus tearing the silk filament. The following types of silk are known: - waste silk, silk waste: also known as flock silk, is spun either by worsted system spinning to produce schappe silk or by the carded yarn spinning system to produce bourette silk. - silk noils: are silk waste used in the textile industry. - sea silk: also known as mussel silk or byssus silk, obtained from mussel fibers. High-quality fibers, but seldom available. - vegetable silk: from filaments obtained from the seeds of foliage plants. Used as fibrous raw material or as stuffing for mattresses, cushions or upholstery, insulating material and the like. - wild silk: comes from the cocoons of wild silkworms; has the same characteristics as silk from domesticated silkworms but is stronger. - Chinese tussah-silk: from which the valuable dress fabric Tsche-Su-Tacha is made.
SILK FABRICS In all cases of damage by seawater immediate cleaning is essential. If proper facilities are not immediately available the material should be thoroughly washed in fresh cold water. See TEXTILES and also FABRICS.
SISAL (See Fibers). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SKINS (See Hides and Skins)
SLAG (See Scoria). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SLATES (See Roofing Slates and Tiles)
SOAP Soap, even under normal conditions, is subject to loss in weight. This loss does not result in reduced efficiency, as it is due to water evaporation only, the active washing material remaining unaltered. Dampness or contact with water deforms the cakes of soap and damages their packing; may render it necessary to have the soap recast. Although the commercial value of the soap may be affected, the soap does not lose its "specie" and can still be used. Temperatures above normal hasten the drying and subsequent cooling may lead to sweating, a condition also brought about by damp conditions. Sweating makes the soap clammy and sticky and such deterioration can affect the marketability. Soap in disintegrated form, such as chips, flakes or powders in bulk may become self-heated if stored under hot humid conditions, particularly if stacked and ventilation is bad.
SODA ASH Subject to loss in weight. Also, may increase in weight due to absorption of moisture.
SODIUM ACETATE CRYSTALS Subject to a natural loss in weight.
SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE Rapidly deteriorates on exposure to air. Usually shipped in drums and if these become opened up in any way immediate measures should be taken to dispose of the contents. Subject to heating. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SODIUM HYDROXIDE (See Caustic Soda)
SODIUM LAURYL SULPHATE Subject to natural loss in weight and will absorb moisture very rapidly when in a moist atmosphere. This absorption of moisture will cause the substance to lose its ordinary dry powdery appearance, become moist to the touch, to form damp lumps, and cake on handling. In order to preserve its condition during transit it should be packed in a container which will resist moisture and moist air.
SODIUM METASILICATE General cleanser. Crystals or powder form shipped in bags. When exposed to air due to tearing or bursting of bags, contents absorb moisture from atmosphere, become hardened or gluey, and are thereby rendered unsaleable. If repacked immediately, loss may be minimized, but if not dealt with promptly deterioration of contents will increase.
SODIUM SALICYLATE On exposure, the powder forms into a solid block with no therapeutic value.
SODIUM SULPHATE If drum covers spring loose, rapid deterioration takes place.
SODIUM SULPHIDE (Chips, Broken, etc.) On exposure, sodium sulphide undergoes a catalytic reaction, due to the incidental chemical decomposition, the resulting product will be found to be caked, heated, or a light salmon hue tinted with slate green patches and intermixed with splotches of some white precipitate. As far as the textile industry is concerned sodium sulphide in this condition is valueless. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SODIUM SULPHITE Bags may be badly corroded and torn, due to excessive inherent acid content.
SOFTWOOD (See Timber)
SOOSI (Susi) An extract from wheat. Liable to heat and to be affected by moisture. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SORGHUM (See Grain)
SORGHUM STRAW (For Brooms) Discolored by molds. May have been baled in damp conditions or wetted before shipment. Depth of penetration of mold may give an indication of time elapsed since damage started.
SOY BEANS Soybeans are cherry-sized seeds of legumes (Leguminosae), one pod containing 1 - 3 differently shaped (round, oval, spherical, kidney-shaped) seeds rich in fat, protein, vitamins and lecithin. They came originally from China and only became more widespread in Europe and America from the end of the 18th century. Soybeans are most often yellow in color, but many varieties also have black beans. Varieties are also known which have brown, olive-green and spotted beans. The hilum may be colorless, brown or black, while the cotyledons are yellow or green. These days, soybeans constitute one of the world's most economically significant plants and are cultivated and harvested on a grand scale. They belong to the category of oil-bearing seeds/fruits which, like the various types of cereal, are vegetable products with a low water content. However, they differ from cereals in their high oil content, which may vary within broad limits.
SOY OIL (Soybean Oil) Soy oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from soybeans or soy grits by extraction or pressing. It is a high-quality yellow to brownish yellow edible oil. Its high drying capacity gives it a tendency to change consistency. Soy oil smells and tastes like a meat extract.
SOYA BEAN FLOUR AND MEAL Have a greater tendency to heating and sweating than soya beans, and require the same care in stowage, ventilation and precautions against the use of cargo hooks. Usually packed in bags. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SOYA BEAN OIL When shipped in bulk is liable to loss in weight. See BULK OILS and FATS.
SOYA BEANS (See Beans, dried)
SPERMACETI (CETACEUM) A white fatty substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale. On exposure, this substance becomes rancid and valueless. Requires cool storage.
SPICES Spices are processed, cleaned, graded and carefully packaged for overseas dispatch in the countries where they are cultivated. They are dried to preserve them for transport and storage. In consumer countries, they are delivered to spice mills, where they are cleaned and graded again, ready for sale in unground or ground form. The term spice is used to refer to plant parts which serve to improve the odor and flavor of foods. They contain essential oils and other ingredients which have a strong seasoning action. Spices are classified by the plant parts used: - Fruit and seed spices (e.g. pepper, allspice, cardamom) - Bud and flower spices (e.g. cloves) - Bark spices (e.g. cinnamon) - Root spices (ginger, turmeric) - Leaf spices (bay leaf)
SPICES APRICOT KERNELS - The apricot (rose family, Rosaceae) comes originally from China and the region between the Caspian and the Black Seas and is the stone fruit of the apricot tree. It is 4 - 8 cm in size. Apricot kernels are the seed kernels of the apricot after they have been removed from the stones and are used in the production of liqueurs and persipan (marzipan substitute). Apricot kernels, which belong to the class of oil-bearing seeds/fruits and are light-brown in color, have a very high fat content. Oil content: apricot kernels have an oil content of 50 - 60%.
SPICES CARAWAY - Caraway is the mature, dried schizocarpic fruit of a biennial herb of the parsley family (Umbelliferae), native to Eurasia. Each schizocarpic fruit is formed of two caraway seeds and divides into the two half-fruits when mature. These are 3 - 7 mm long, 1.5 - 2 mm wide, crescent-shaped, pointed at both ends, dark brown and have 5 yellowish ridges. The umbels are cut shortly before they reach maturity and dried. Oil content: - 5.0 - 7.0% essential oils, in particular carvone and limonene - 2.5 - 6.0% essential oils - up to 12% fatty oils
SPICES CLOVES - Cloves are the unripe flower buds (10 - 17 mm long) of the up to 14 m tall clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum) of the Myrtaceae family. The tree is indigenous to the Moluccas in South-East Asia. Cloves are harvested just before they open, then destalked before being sun-dried. In the course of the drying process, they change color from carmine to light to dark brown. The clove consists of the head formed of the four petals, which enclose the style and stamens, and the four-sided calyx, which forms a unit with the calyx tube. Cloves are a very valuable, expensive product. Oil content: - 15.0 - 20.0% essential oils, in particular eugenol - 7.0 - 10.0 % fatty oils
SPICES FENNEL SEED - Fennel seeds are the ripe, dried, gray-green striped to yellowish brown schizocarpic fruits (4 - 10.5 mm long, 2 - 4 mm wide) of the fennel bush, which is of Mediterranean origin and belongs to the Umbelliferae family. Obtained from this aromatic and medicinal plant, the seeds emit a pleasant odor, are highly aromatic and have a pungent flavor. Oil content: 5.0 - 6.5% essential oils, in particular fenchone and anethole
SPICES STAR ANISE - Star anise is the almost ripe, dried, star-shaped multiple fruit of the star anise tree (Illicium verum), which is a member of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). The small, red-brown, star-shaped fruits contain 6 - 8 unevenly sized, boat-shaped individual fruits 12 - 17 mm in length, each containing a glossy brown, egg-shaped seed. The fruits contain the same essential oil as aniseeds. Oil content: Essential oils: - 2.5 - 5.0%, in particular anethole
SPICES CINNAMON - Cinnamon or cinnamon bark is the dried inner bark, stripped of its outer cork layer, which is peeled from the thin stems and twigs of the cinnamon tree (Cinnamomum aromaticum) of the laurel family (Lauraceae). Cinnamon is also known as cassia. A similar spice to cinnamon is cassia (Cinnamomum cassia); once harvested, both roll up into "quills" when they are dried in the sun, but while cinnamon curls inwards from both edges, cassia curls inwards from only one edge. Due to their similar properties, cinnamon and cassia are dealt with together. Ground cinnamon of commerce may comprise cinnamon or cassia. The quills are 1 m in length and are subsequently cut into cinnamon sticks generally 8 cm in length. The odor of cinnamon is aromatic and spicy, while its flavor may sometimes be hot and pungent. Cinnamon is offered for sale as sticks, broken bark and in ground form and is usually yellowish to dark brown in color. Oil content: 1.0 - 3.5% essential oils, in particular cinnamaldehyde
SPICES CORIANDER - Coriander seeds are the ripe, 3 - 5 mm (C. sativum vulgare), dried schizocarpic fruits of the annual coriander herb (parsley family, Umbelliferae). The fruits of Coriandrum sativum microcarpum have a diameter of only 1.5 - 3 mm. The two varieties differ in their essential oil content, the smaller having the higher content. The fruits are spherical and yellowish-brownish in color. Finger pressure is enough to divide them into two half-fruits. Coriander comes originally from Asia Minor and the southern Mediterranean. The pleasant, strong, peculiarly aromatic odor and sweetish, slightly bitter flavor of the fruits forms only after a certain period of storage and is caused by the essential coriander oil contained in the fruits. Oil content: Coriandrum sativum var. vulgare contains 0.1 - 0.5% essential oils (Morocco, India), while Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum contains > 0.4 - 1.8% (southern Europe). The principal component of the essential oil is coriandrol.
SPICES ALLSPICE is the pea-sized, berry-like, dark-red to blackish-brown, 5 - 10 cm fruit, harvested when not quite ripe, of the evergreen allspice tree (Pimenta dioica) of the myrtle (Myrtaceae) family, native to the islands of the West Indies. The rough, slightly wrinkled husk has round indentations, in the center of which it is still possible to discern the remains of the style. The fruit contains two compartments, each with one seed. Allspice is so named because its aroma resembles a mixture of cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg. Other, vernacular names for allspice include pimento and Jamaica pepper, but these are not used commercially. Oil content: 2.0 - 5.0% essential oils, in particular allspice berry oil.
SPICES ANISEED - Aniseed or pimpinella comes from the Middle East and has become native to the countries of the Mediterranean. Aniseed is the schizocarpic fruit of the annual anise plant of the parsley family (Umbelliferae) and consists of two half-fruits (3 - 6 mm long, 2 - 2.5 mm wide and 2 - 12 mm long pedicel) which are separable only with difficulty. Aniseed is one of the oldest spices and is also used medicinally. The spice contains essential oils and other ingredients which have a strong seasoning action. Oil content: 2.0 - 6.0% essential oils, in particular aniseed oil.
SPICES BAY LEAVES - Bay leaves, which are up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide, are the dried, short-stemmed, leathery leaves of the evergreen sweet bay tree (Lauraceae family). They exude a strong odor, have a delicately bitter taste and are native to the Mediterranean.
SPICES CAPSICUM - Capsicums, which are often called chili peppers or hot peppers and may be dried or pickled in vinegar, are the fully ripened, bright red, long and variably sized fruits (length: 5 - 12 cm; diameter up to 5 cm) of Capsicum annuum, which is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Capsicums (native to South America) which are used as a spice are generally dried and usually finely ground in the importing country, with the hotness of the powder being determined by the proportion of seeds and partitions added. The berry fruits of the capsicum are smaller and narrower than those of the sweet pepper and are somewhat bent with a pointed tip to the pod. As with chili pods, the distinctly hot flavor is due to the alkaloid capsaicin which is primarily present in the partitions inside the pod and in the seeds. Oil content: 10.0 - 13.0% essential oils, of which 0.15 - 0.50% capsaicin
SPICES CARDAMOM - Cardamom is one of the most significant, valuable spices in the world. It consists of the small, highly aromatic pods or seed capsules of a perennial plant of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) native to India. The fruit capsules, which are collected just before maturity, are three-sided, 8 - 25 mm long and 2 - 4 mm wide and have three compartments containing a total of 15 - 20 seeds (2 - 4 mm in diameter). Oil content: 3.0 - 8.0% essential oils, in particular cardamom oil, which has a high cineole content. The fatty oil content is approx. 2%.
SPICES CHILLIES - Chilies or chili peppers are the dried berry fruits (0.7 - 3.0 cm long, 0.3 - 1.0 cm wide) of a small variety of the pepper of the genus Capsicum (nightshade family, Solanaceae). They consist of conically pointed pods ranging from orange-yellow to yellowish-red in color. Chilies are a hotter spice than large sweet peppers. The term spice is used to refer to plant parts which serve to improve the odor and flavor of foods. They contain essential oils and other ingredients which have a strong seasoning action. Cayenne pepper consists of ground chilies (chili powder). The chili plant, often known as the hot pepper, is native to the tropical regions of America and Africa. Oil content: 1.0 - 3.2% essential oils, in particular capsaicin.
SPONGES Oil affects the elasticity of sponges. If not properly cleaned and dried they may turn red. Subject to a natural loss in weight.
SQUID (See Fish)
STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS (See Iron and Steel Products)
STAR ANISE (see spices)
STARCH Is liable to be tainted by odorous cargo. When shipped in cotton bags a loss through leakage may occur.
STEARIC ACID (See Acids)
STEEL (See Iron and Steel Products)
STICKLAC (See Shellac)
STILLINGIA OIL When shipped in bulk may be subject to loss in weight. See BULK OILS and FATS.
STOCKFISH (See Fish)
STRAWBERRY PULP Subject to loss in weight due to absorption by the containers and evaporation through the wood. See also FRUIT PULP.
STRAWBRAID Plaited straw or hemp used for making hats, shoe soles, etc., exported from China and Japan, usually packed in bales. Should not be press packed, as this damages the braid. Covers should be adequate to prevent the infiltration of dust, and soiling of the outer parts of the contents. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
STRONTIA (Oxide of Strontium) Decomposes in water and liable to heat. Shipped in drums. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SUGAR Special care should be exercised in ascribing the cause of damage to this commodity, particularly in the case of alleged water or moisture damage. If not dry to the point at which it is in equilibrium with the relative humidity of the atmosphere, sugar may continue to lose moisture in storage, stowage, etc., dry and tend to cake. Similarly, if the sugar is too dry it will absorb moisture from the atmosphere until it attains equilibrium and if atmospheric conditions change and it dries again it will tend to cake. If the sugar is excessively dried it may suffer in luster and from dust formation. Sugar dried to equilibrium by the manufacturer will, if exposed to atmosphere of high humidity, i.e. in damp localities or during the voyage, inevitably re-absorb moisture to the higher level of the surrounding atmosphere. The absorption or loss of moisture after leaving the manufacturers' premises will not be apparent until there is a further change in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. For instance, sugar which has been packed in a relative humidity of 65%. may well await shipment in a relative humidity of 85% and will come to equilibrium with the atmosphere, and to all intents and purposes, sugar will appear to be unaffected. After loading into the vessel, however, the relative humidity of the atmosphere may fall to 65% and under these circumstances the sugar will lose moisture. During this process it will dry and cake. A relative humidity of between 80% and 85% is what one can consider as a critical relative humidity for sugar. Above this humidity sugar always tends to gain moisture very rapidly, while below it, it remains relatively unaffected. Even although the sugar gains moisture rapidly above 80% to 85% R.H., the first effect of the gain is merely to increase the moisture content and does not produce caking. A subsequent fall in humidity will, however, tend to dry the sugar out and will inevitably produce caking and lumpiness throughout the whole as the dissolved sugar on the outside of the crystals adheres to its neighbor. When damaged by fresh or salt water, sugar should not be considered a total loss, as the quantity remaining after drainage should show little loss in polarization; sugar remaining after draining should show a greater degree of polarization than when wet. Cases have been known where sugar which had been totally submerged showed only a small loss in polarization. If local facilities are available for re-refining, it is in the best interests of all concerned to have the damaged sugar forwarded immediately to the refinery for re-elaboration and centrifugation. If the damaged sugar is landed at a port of distress, where no immediate facilities for reconditioning the sugar are available, it is sometimes advisable to have the sugar forwarded promptly to its destination. Damaged sugar may commence to deteriorate within a short time of the accident. The possibility of further damage arising due to fermentation and other factors during transit should also receive attention. Damaged sugar which has been rendered unfit for normal consumption may sometimes be used in the manufacture of cheap confectionery. A market for burnt sugar may be found for brewing purposes. When examining sugar the following points should be borne in mind: (a) Surveyors should refrain from expressing an opinion as to the cause of the damage unless there is clear evidence to support such opinion, e.g. rain during discharge, etc. (b) Where samples are tested for the presence of seawater and the reaction is negative, the analyst should state this fact; where the reaction is positive, the analyst should specify the salts found. The analyst should not attempt to specify a cause, such as fresh water, rain water, seawater, etc. It is desirable that a sound sample, both of wrapping and contents, should be similarly tested. (c) It is essential that the condition of the goods should be described in fullest detail and all possible inquiries made in an endeavor to establish the cause of any alleged damage. (d) If foreign matter is found the analyst should state whether it is of an injurious character or otherwise. Wherever possible the analyst should carry out a polarization test. (e) Sugar kept in damp storage is liable to inversion due to mold growth on the bags. (f) Cane Sugar (unrefined) - At the end of each crop season quite large quantities of sweated sugar (due to lying in storage) are found. This might readily be mistaken for damage in transit. (g) Raw Sugar - Liable to liquefy and leak from containers.
SUGAR CANDY SUGAR - Candy sugar has its origins in India and Persia. The production of candy sugar was described by Arabic writers in the first half of the 9th century. Large crystals were obtained by cooling supersaturated sugar solutions. In order to accelerate crystallization, confectioners later learnt to immerse small twigs in the solution for the crystals to grow on. The sugar solution was colored with cochineal and indigo and scented with ambergris or flower essence. Today, candy sugar is composed of a number of smaller crystals. It is produced by slow crystallization of a vacuum-evaporated sugar solution. Threads, which are intended to prevent the crystals from sinking to the bottom or agglomerating, are clamped in a holder in this solution. The crystals are allowed to grow on the threads to the desired size. This type of candy sugar is also known as thread candy sugar, as the thread generally remains in the crystal. Candy sugar without threads is obtained by "seeding" with sugar crystals. The following types of candy sugar are distinguished: - White candy sugar: produced from refined sugar solution - Yellow or brown candy sugar: produced from refined sugar solution and colored with caramel. Candy sugar is of higher purity than refined sugar
SUGAR LUMP SUGAR - Lump sugar is refined sugar which has been pressed or cast into a particular shape. Chemically speaking, refined sugar is ultrapure sucrose which has been obtained from white sugar by dissolution and recrystallization. Its sucrose content is 99.9%. Refined sugar is pure white in color with sparkling crystals. Refined sugar has no secondary odors or flavors. The crystals are readily soluble. Sugar cubes are available as either pressed or cast cubes. Pressed cubes: Sugar cubes were first made in 1840 by the Austrian Jacob Christoph Rad. Cubes were initially made by pressing moistened sugar and casting it in sheets, which were broken up first into strips and then into cubes. Today, fine-grain refined sugar with 2 - 3% of added water is still pressed into sheets and strips, which are dried and divided into cubes. The dividing surfaces of pressed cubes may vary between smooth and very uneven as the strips are not always uniform in structure. Since pressure bonds the sugar crystals together firmly only at the surface, pressed cubes are easily crushed and then break apart completely. Cast cubes: Refined sugar massecuite is allowed to solidify in a sheet mold. The sheets of sugar are then centrifuged and washed once more with saturated refined sugar solution. Then they are dried and divided into cubes. Cast cubes are stronger, harder and somewhat more porous than pressed cubes. The sugar crystals are clearly recognizable. Due to their porous structure, cast cubes dissolve in liquids more easily than pressed cubes. Sugar cubes are often arranged in neat rows in their packaging. Loaf sugar: Sugar loaves are also produced by the pressing process and used, for example, in traditional German burnt punch and in jam making.
SUGAR RAW SUGAR - Sugar is the name for the sweet-tasting foodstuff obtained from sugar beet or sugar cane, the products respectively being known as beet sugar or cane sugar. Chemically speaking, both beet and cane sugar are sucrose. Sugar is suspected to have its origins in India, where the first sugar cane is said to have been discovered some 2500 years ago. Sugar beet cultivation, however, is a much more recent innovation. The sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. altissima) is a member of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). The beet consists of the crown, neck, main body (hypocotyl) and the beet tail. The main body of the beet contains stored sucrose, which is the raw material for sugar production. Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is a tropical grass which belongs to the grass family (Gramineae). Raw sugar is a moist, coarsely crystalline mass with a sucrose content of 95 - 97%. The solid cores of the raw sugar crystals are still covered with a layer of syrup. These accompanying substances make the cane sugar moist and tacky and give it its typical yellowish-brown color and malty, burnt flavor. The water content of raw sugar is 0.25 - 1.1%. Raw sugar is an intermediate in the production of sugar.
SUGAR WHITE SUGAR - Sugar is the name for the sweet-tasting foodstuff obtained from sugar beet or sugar cane, the products respectively being known as beet sugar or cane sugar. Chemically speaking, both beet and cane sugar are sucrose. Sugar is suspected to have its origins in India, where the first sugar cane is said to have been discovered some 2500 years ago. Sugar beet cultivation, however, is a much more recent innovation. The sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. altissima) is a member of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). The beet consists of the crown, neck, main body (hypocotyl) and the beet tail. The main body of the beet contains stored sucrose, which is the raw material for sugar production. Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is a tropical grass which belongs to the grass family (Gramineae). White sugar is regular consumer sugar. It is obtained from raw sugar by washing and centrifuging (affination). Its sucrose content is 99.9%. The film of syrup adhering to the sugar crystals is washed off and largely removed by centrifugation, but a little of the molasses nevertheless remains on the crystal core. This explains the slightly syrupy flavor of white sugar and the slight yellowish-gray sheen of the crystals. The water content of white sugar is at most 0.075%.
SULPHATE OF AMMONIA A crystalline solid which readily absorbs moisture. Subject to natural loss in weight. It is usually packed in bags, which should be strong and double, as in time the contents rot the packing. In any event, owing to the nature of the contents, these bags usually arrive in a stained condition.
SULPHATE OF IRON (See Vitriol Green)
SULPHATE OF POTASH A white or pink crystalline solid from natural potash salt deposits. Hygroscopic and liable to natural loss in weight. Sometimes contains common salt and may harden during the voyage, giving rise to difficulty and extra cost in discharge.
SULPHUR Very inflammable. In bags; if submerged in water a crust of about 1 1/2 in. is formed, which protects the remainder of the contents. See also IMDG Code & US CFR. SULPHUR (Bulk) - Highly combustible. It has been suggested that the throwing of empty discharging baskets into the vessel's hold has created sufficient friction to cause ignition. A case of ignition of sulphur arose when the hatch beams were being placed in their slots, due to sulphur having collected in these slots during discharge. Metal chains or chain slings should not be employed, thus avoiding the possibility of ignition by sparks arising out of contact of such chains or slings with the iron of the ship. Should sulphur catch on fire it should be smothered with more sulphur or with a very fine spray of fresh water. The use of seawater should be avoided. A heavy spray or jet may aggravate the fire. In the manufacture of Sulphuric acid it is absolutely essential that the sulphur used is free from sodium chloride, otherwise hydrochloric acid gas is likely to be formed during processing. with serious consequences to plant. It is. however, a comparatively simple matter to wash sea damaged sulphur and so remove the sodium chloride. Sulphur is not soluble in water, and sodium chloride may sometimes be removed by leaving the crude sulphur in the open for some time exposed to rain. Seawater damage to sulphur which is intended for use in the paper industry renders it unfit for that purpose.
SULPHURIC ACID (See Acids). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
SUMAC A very fine, free-running powder obtained from the leaves and pods of a Sicilian tree, used in the tanning and dyeing industries. Packed in bags and liable to loss in weight on account of the dusty nature of the commodity. It is affected by humidity and any wetting, whether by salt or fresh water, will reduce the tanning properties, and cause caking, which makes the powder difficult to handle.
SUNFLOWER OIL Sunflower oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained from the fatty kernels of sunflowers. Cold-pressed crude oil is light yellow, hot-pressed crude oil has a brown color and refined oil is colorless. Sunflower oil is a high-quality edible oil. The best oil is produced from shelled kernels. In cold conditions, substances crystallize out of wholly untreated sunflower oil which, though physiologically harmless, considerably reduce the value of the sunflower oil. These days, crystallizing substances (mainly waxes from the skin) are generally filtered out prior to transport
SUNFLOWER SEEDS (See Oilseeds)
SUPERPHOSPHATES (See Phosphates and Superphosphates)
SWITCH CABINETS, SWITCHGEAR Switch cabinets/switchgear contain sensitive electrical, electronic and mechanical components to perform control, drive, power supply and safety functions. As a rule, these components are of high quality. Switch cabinets consist of the cabinet housing and door and the interior components (e.g. mounting plates), which generally take the form of drawer units or are mounted on a panel.
SYNTHETIC RESINS (See Plastics). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
TAGUA NUTS (Corozo Nuts) (See Nuts and Kernels)
TALLOW May be subject to loss in weight through leakage when shipped in containers. Tallow may show large percentage of moisture which is not due to external causes; this chiefly applies to low-grade tallow in bulk. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
TAMARIND Fruit used medicinally and as a condiment. The containers may be subject to a natural staining from the contents. Salt water damage may render the fruit totally unfit for human consumption, but it may be utilized in the manufacture of dyes. Subject to natural loss in weight due to drying out. In India tamarind is mixed with salt and the preparation used to preserve fish. Care should therefore be exercised when testing for seawater damage.
TANKAGE (Fertilizer) Liable to spontaneous combustion. Consists of begetable fiber refuse. Also produced from slaughterhouse refuse, which is liable to heat. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
TAPIOCA Is prone to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Losses and gains in weight vary considerably from voyage to voyage, depending in the main on conditions of humidity during transit.
TAPIOCA FLOUR Low grades may turn sour during sea voyages.
TAPIOCA PEARL (Sago Substitute) If kept in a damp climate for a long period or if shipped with an excessive moisture content, it is liable to cake and turn brown owing to bacterial action.
TAR (See Coal Tar). See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
TARRAS (Trass) is a volcanic material found in the Rhine district of Germany. It is made up chiefly of silica and alumina with color varying in color. This has been used in construction for hundreds of years.
TEA WATER DAMAGE - FRESH OR SALT - Tea is usually packed in aluminum foil lined chests, aluminium foil or similar material, and when contaminated with water the packages become stained or the top layer of the plywood becomes corrugated. With damage by salt water, a whitish deposit is sometimes left on the wood. If no salt deposit is in evidence, it becomes necessary, in order to distinguish between salt and fresh water damage, either to smell or submit the stained portions to chemical tests. Although tea packages are lined, the contents can be damaged by water. When this occurs the tea will be damp and appear moldy, possibly having a musty or brackish smell, and if the package has dried out the tea may be caked. To recover the sound portion, remove with care the lumps or pieces of caked tea, taking care not to mix the moldy parts. Abandon those parts caked, dry or pasty in the angles and at the bottom. The tea should then run out easily and can be recovered.
TEA WASTE Exported in quantity for chemical purposes, mainly for the manufacturing of caffeine. Contact with moisture may deteriorate the waste causing it to cake and lose chemical properties.
TEASEED OIL Teaseed oil is of vegetable origin and is obtained by pressing and extraction from the seeds of various tea plants. It is a straw yellow to greenish yellow fatty oil. Teaseed oil has a characteristic odor and a pleasant taste
TEA FIRE OR SMOKE - When tea has been in the proximity of a fire the packages may be scorched as well as perhaps suffering water damage by the use of preventative action against the fire. There may be occasions when the contents of the packages suffer smoke damage while the chests themselves remain clean. When tea is found to be tainted with smoke, difficulty may arise in deciding whether the tea was affected in course of production or during transportation. In such instances it would be advisable for enquiries to be made of the shippers to ascertain whether or not the tea had been reported smoke tainted prior to shipment. It might on occasions be necessary to obtain an expert tea taster's advice for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the tea is smoke tainted.
TEA IMPROPER COOPERAGE - Additional losses of weight can be sustained as a result of rough handling and improper cooperage in transit. When chests are coopered in the country of origin and at ports of shipment these are known as "Country Coopered Packages." Those chests coopered on arrival at destination are known as "Dock Coopered Packages." To ascertain where chests have been coopered the difference in the method and the wood used for coopering is a guide. Often paper is placed between the damaged portion of the chest panel and the wood patch and the type of paper, which is, usually newsprint, is also a guide for this purpose. Tea which has suffered severe damage may be condemned as unfit for human consumption, in which case it can only be used for caffeine purposes. Tea consists of the fermented and dried leaves, leaf buds and tender stems of the evergreen tea bush of the Theaceae family. Tea is a high quality semiluxury item, the stimulant action of which results from its content of 2.5 - 5% of thein. At certain intervals, the tea bushes are cut back to a height of 1 m. Tea is always harvested as two leaves and one bud. Tea is cultivated in plantations (tea gardens). The principal tea cultivating countries are in the tropics and subtropics. Unlike green coffee beans and raw cocoa, tea is exported in ready-to-use form. It is a cargo which demands the utmost care. Shipping period starts approx. 6 weeks after harvest, with the tea shipped at the beginning of a season being the most valuable. Later varieties of tea are mostly of lower quality.
TEA PRE-SHIPMENT DAMAGE - Tea carried in wagons that are not water tight may be damaged due to water accumulating on the floor of - the truck and seeping into the packages. Insufficient firing in the factory on the estate may result in the teas turning out at destination in a spongy and possibly moldy condition resulting probably in a heavy claim. This condition can be rectified by having the tea re-fired.
TEA SHIP'S SWEAT - Damage of this nature is brought about by condensation forming on the metal work of the hold and dripping on to the packages, and, as in the case of water damage, packages become stained. Unlike rain or seawater damage, the packages become extremely dirty, and on landing repacking into new chests may be necessary.
TEA ODORS OR TAINT - Damage of this nature is usually caused by bad storage prior to delivery. Tea is very readily affected by contact with odorous goods and although it may be possible to disperse the taint by airing the affected tea, this can only be done to a limited extent. Very often it is not practicable to do so owing to the length of time and the amount of accommodation necessary to air the teas. Usually foreign odors or taint are picked up in shipment sheds at ports of shipment or in ships, particularly from fruits and essential oils. As in the case of smoke damage it might on occasions be necessary to obtain expert tea taster's ad vice for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the tea is tainted. By examining the chests and the tea taster's report on the tea, it might be possible to tell where the taint has been picked up. Tea damaged by taint may be sold for blending with cheap brands.
TEA LOSS OF WEIGHT - Normally tea properly manufactured should gain in weight to a certain extent in transit, but loss of weight may occur through pilferage or improper cooperage.
TEA PILFERAGE - To detect this, packages can be examined for signs of tampering such as damage to the plywood or the metal binders. Nails of packages, however, can be drawn and contents removed without leaving more than scratches, but even if nails have been skillfully removed and replaced they are often slightly loose or protruding. The examination of the package linings may also give evidence of pilferage for, if this has taken place, the lining is often damaged. There are, however, occasions when pilferages have taken place, very skillfully, without leaving any visible signs of tampering and the package can only be described as "Light in Weight." Certain tea companies make a 10% check weighing at ports of shipment so that any pilferage of this type in the country of origin can be detected prior to shipment. On occasions chests of tea which have been pilfered have not shown any loss of weight buy have been found to contain foreign matter as a "make-weight."
TERRA JAPONICA (See Catechu)
TEXTILES (See under individual headings, and also tests table in appendix)
TILES (General) When packed in crates so that the contents can be readily seen, less breakage occurs than if packed in a complete case. It may be found that excessive breakage is due to bad firing. Shipped in multiwall cartons. Lately we also saw them in cartons lined with styrofoam TILES (Glazed) - Water contamination or damp packing may cause hairline cracks in the glaze. The slightest chipping of the more elegant and expensive types renders them valueless. TILES (Roofing) - Should be unaffected by immersion in fresh or salt water. Only claim should be in respect of cleaning. See also ROOFING SLATES.
TIMBER All kinds of wood, whether hewn, sawn or planed, contain moisture in varying degrees, newly cut lumber being full of sap containing more moisture and being much heavier than timber cut during the previous season. Care should be exercised when attributing a cause for stain, as a disease known as "dote" may cause a stain to develop right through a log. In certain hardwoods dote may be traced a few months after felling, when the ends of the logs become dry; the disease will develop rapidly during hot and dry weather. The drying out of the wood will bring about a natural loss in weight. When surveying moisture damaged timber it should be remembered that wood full of sap is likely to be stained or mold spotted from such inherent moisture. SOFTWOOD - If wetted should be stick piled as soon as possible and allowed to try out. Loss quite often is then limited to costs of sticking. SOFTWOOD OR HARDWOOD - Discoloration, provided this has not penetrated too deeply, can be planed out; this will result in reduction. in thickness, but the timber remaining will be perfectly sound. SAWN SOFTWOOD - Mold or fungus growth through the tissues of timber causes discoloration and incipient rot. Kiln drying should arrest this. Staining of a very dark character may indicate contact with water prior to shipment.
TIN PLATES AND SHEETS Rust damage may take place if goods are stowed in proximity to fertilizers or other carge having a tendency to heat and throw off moisture. Unseasoned wood, which is sometimes used in the packing, may cause tinplates to corrode. Subject to rapid corrosion if wetted and exposed to air. Immediate steps must be taken to dry thoroughly. In event of total submersion plates should, if practicable, remain under water until arrangements have been made for immediate attention when recovered.
TOBACCO The various types of tobacco are grown in well-defined locations where soil and climate yield a product with the desired properties. There are a large number of types of tobacco with the major growers being China, the United States, India, Brazil, Turkey and Greece. Certainly there are smaller growing regions of the world whose production is valued such as Cuba and several Central American countries. The main importers are Germany, the UK, Japan, Russia and the Netherlands. The United States is actually the largest importing and exporting nation. This is because the domestic leaf such as the high quality taste, aroma and burning qualities), flue cured and burley can be blended with foreign produced tobacco. After picking tobacco is packed and then compressed into either hogsheads or corrugated cartons. Hogsheads were long the stalwart of the industry but the wooden barrel type container (about 4-5 feet high and about 4 feet in diameter) use is greatly diminishing due to the cost of manufacturing. In lieu of the 950-1,200 pound hogshead, most shipments are being packed in 200 kilo cartons. The switch to cartons has facilitated loading, stowage within ocean containers and trailers, and perhaps most importantly, processing at the manufacturer's production lines. The major exposure to loss and damage is from water wetting, contamination and physical damage. Obviously, theft and pilferage of finished products, such as cigarettes and cigars, is problematic and has been for a number of years. Contact with water is quite troublesome mainly due to the fact that tobacco has been thoroughly dried and thus readily absorbs moisture. It will become soggy quite quickly with mold likely to settle result. This moisture tends to spread quickly throughout the tobacco as will a sour odor. This can permeate a cargo space if the tobacco is not sorted in a timely manner. However, since the tobacco is shipped in a compressed form, affected areas can be fairly easily identified and cut away thus minimizing the monetary loss. Milder forms of wetting can be treated through re-drying. Saltwater wetting is more difficult and the only safe way to ensure that only sound product is saved will be through careful segregation and culling. It should be noted that in its natural state, tobacco contains trace amounts of chlorides so a surveyor's field silver chloride test can be misleading. It is recommended that comparative tests be run between damaged tobacco versus sound product.
TOBACCO Tobacco will also take in odors from adjacent cargo and the surrounding environment. Ventilation can dissipate the odors so that should be the first option. Other forms are contamination can also result in bad order tobacco. The culprit is typically residue of previous cargo. Again, quickly separating the sound goods from that portion suspected to be damaged is prudent. Rough handling generally involves the outer packaging only with no adverse impact to the commodity. Repackaging may be required. On finished products, such as cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco, any damage to the exterior/protective packaging may expose the contents and thus pose an attractive nuisance and increase the likelihood of damage. This is quite a mature industry with a limited number of companies so salvage potential may not be as lucrative as one would think.
TOMATOES (See Vegetables and Fruit, fresh)
TOTANIN (Spruce Extract) Also known as spruce extract, this is the liquor from sulfite spruce pulping used for mixing with quebracho for tanning leather. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
TRANSPARENT WRAPPING PAPER COATED PAPER - Generally packed in thick paper packets of one ream each inside wooden case. Although the cases and wrappers may arrive in seemingly perfect condition, the contents may be damaged. On occasion the edges of the sheets may be found to be adhering so resolutely as to be almost inseparable. The surfaces of the sheets (face and back) will neither be stuck, blemished nor marred, thus eliminating the possibility of the damage having been caused by moisture or pressure. Therefore, it is an outside factor which causes the edges of the sheets to cleave in this fashion (and not some natural or innate tendency of the paper which causes the edges of the sheets to cluster and stick together) it can only be presumed that the proximate cause must be heat, to which cellophane is susceptible. If packed in cases the risk of outside damage is small; the so-called case bales are not always satisfactory. Frequently with coated papers the sheets are found gummed together. This is sometimes caused by the paper having been packed slightly damp. Such dampness may also lead to crinkling of the sheets. VISCOSE FILM - Is naturally hygroscopic and therefore affected by climatic changes. It absorbs moisture and dries out quickly. Extreme conditions of heat, cold, moisture or dryness should therefore be avoided both in stowage, and storage. In humid weather it is not advisable to stack or stow the packets of sheets too high, as this will cause the sheets to adhere to each other. On arrival at destination, should difficulty be experienced with sheets not separating freely, the surveyor should try flexing the package. This often separates the bond, which sometimes is caused by a vacuum resulting from complete expulsion of air between the sheets.
TRASS (See Tarras)
TRIPE, DRIED Is subject to inherent vice. Tripe so affected will be found to be abounding with small black weevil and larvae and should be fumigated.
TROCHUS SHELL Subject to loss in weight due to chafage and shedding of foreign matter. May become infested with vermin.
TUCUM KERNELS (See Oilseeds)
TUNG OIL (China Wood Oil) This is a quick and uniform drying oil that is used for enamels and varnishes, brake linings, plastic compounds, linoleum and for making pigments. Tung oil is pressed from the seeds of the Chinese wood oil tree. It can also be obtained from the nuts of the A.fordii from the U.S. Gulf states. This tree is also grown in South Africa and Argentina. The color of the oil varies from golden yellow to dark brown depending on the degree of heat used in the extraction process. It has a pungent odor.
TURMERIC This is derived from the rhizomes of the perennial plant Curcuma longa of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. The roots are cleaned and dried in the sun. It is highly aromatic and has a pungent, bitter taste. It is mixed with pepper, cumin, fenugreek and other spices to make curry powder. It is also used to flavor and color foods and as a drying agent for textiles and leather as well as in wood stains. When it acts as a dye it is known as India saffron, naturally reddish brown but gives a yellowish tinge to textiles and food. It can also be used as a chemical indicator, changing hue with acidity or alkalinity.
TURPENTINE This is an oil obtained through steam distillation of the oleoresin that seeps from freshly cut conifers. The main sources of this material are the longleaf pine and slash pine. Now it also includes oils of turpentine obtained by distillation and solvent extraction from stumpwood and waste wood. It is produced mostly in the United States, France and Spain. It is a valuable drying oil for paints and varnishes due to its property of rapidly absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere thus creating a tough and durable film of paint. Turpentine is also used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber as well as in linoleum, soap and ink. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
UMBER This is a brown siliceous, naturally earth colored with iron oxides and manganese oxide. It comes chiefly from Italy and Cyprus. It is used as a pigment when washed with water and finely ground. It is inert and very stable.
VALONEA/VALONIA This is acorn cups of the oak Q. aeqilops of Asia Minor and the Balkans
VANILLA This is the seed pod of a climbing plant of the orchid family of which there are more than 50 known species. The species grown for commercial vanilla is Vanilla planifolia, a tall climbing herb with yellow flowers. The beans vary in length (10-18 cms.) and color and when dried resemble irregularly shaped twigs than the conventional bean such as coffee and cocoa. The higher-grade beans are rich and dark with an oily feel to them. The inferior beans are generally quite dry and plain light brown. The flowers are pollinated by hand to produce 30-40 beans per plant The once picked green beans are they immediately cured to prevent spoilage. The primary use of the vanilla bean is its extract that is a highly regarded food flavoring for ice cream, puddings, cakes and other foodstuffs. The extract is made by percolating the chopped bean pods in ethyl alcohol and then concentrating the mixture by evaporating the alcohol at a low temperature to avoid impairing the flavor. Vanillin, a substance that crystallizes on the surface of the ban during the curing process and possesses the characteristic odor and flavor can also act as a chemical intermediate in the production of various pharmaceuticals and as a preservative. Vanilla extract is classified in three grades: 1, 2 and 3. The top or Grade I is all natural or pure vanilla. Grade 2 contains up to 50% of synthetic or artificial flavoring and the lowest Grade is comprised of more than half artificial flavoring. Vanilla beans are grown in humid, tropical climates, the rule-of-thumb being 20 degrees north and south of the Equator. The beans thrive in wet, moist environments but for the flowers of the plant to bloom, they need a solid two months of dry weather. Although the vanilla bean is native to Mexico it is grown commercially in Madagascar, Indonesia, the Seychelles, Reunion, Tahiti and Mauritius. Uganda, India and Costa Rica are emerging growers.
VANILLA Madagascar dominates the trade accounting for approximately 75% of the world's production. With an annual output between 1,000-1,200 metric tons. Most of the highest quality or Prime beans comes from this island nation. Indonesia is also an important market force but typically the beans grown there are not as prized. The United States is the largest importer although Europe is also a market, especially for the gourmet quality beans. The traditional method of packing vanilla beans was placing the loose beans in rectangular tins with sealed or loose fitting lids and then inside corrugated cartons. However, today most shippers have gone to packing the beans in the corrugated cartons with the beans bulk loaded inside a plastic lining. In some instances, the cartons are lined with a Kraft-type brown paper or wax coated version. The weight of the cartons varies significantly and can range from 16 to 60 pounds. This is due to the moisture content of the bean. The higher quality product has elevated levels of moisture while the inferior beans are dried extensively. Cartons are floor loaded into 20-foot standard ocean containers. Usually a container can accommodate 450-500 cartons. Most of the vanilla beans travel via ocean with the deciding factors being size of the shipment and the price of both the vanilla beans and the freight. As the price of the beans increase, its relationship to the more costly air freight charges is more favorable. In times of price normalcy, ocean carriage is the mode of choice. The main concern for loss/damage is mold development from moisture contact. The beans have their own inherent moisture, anywhere between 8 and 30 percent with the higher-grade varieties running at about 22%. Therefore, they are susceptible to condensation caused by temperature changes. There is also the possibility that the green beans were not properly dried and cured. Ocean transport between Madagascar or Indonesia to importers in North America and Europe can translate into 6 weeks on the water. The better quality beans do contain higher amounts of vanillin (around 2 percent is good) making them much more resistant to mold growth.
VANILLA It should be noted that shipments from Madagascar, and to a lesser extent, Indonesia, will be transshipped, either in ports such as Antwerp or Singapore for the potential for delays always exists. While not a covered peril, this added time at a marine terminal can expose the beans to fluctuating climatic conditions- direct sunlight during the day and cool evenings, an ideal incubator for condensation. Direct water contact is quite problematic but not a likely event due to the layers of protection (plastic, tin and/or corrugated, container) under normal circumstances. Vanilla beans much like coffee and cocoa are subject to infestation but these incidents seem to be fairly rare. Rough handling resulting in breakage of the beans is not a real issue since the beans are typically sent to extractors or flavoring factories. The one exception would be the very small percentage of beans destined to specialty shops to be sold in their original form. The value of the beans does vary tremendously. At this time the best beans are selling for approximately $270 per kilo so the potential for theft and pilferage at the ports in exporting countries cannot be ignored. Madagascar can be a problem area. Loss of weight occurs naturally and any discrepancy between the manifested weight per carton always differs from the landed quantity. Some growers will resort to adding foreign material in the shipment in the hopes that the importer will either not notice or will ignore it. At the current price levels this is unlikely. Damaged vanilla beans do retain some residual value but this depends on the severity. Since most of the companies that purchase the beans process them further (pressing or macerating into extract or chopped product), there may be some normal washing that can rid the beans from surface mold and defects. Moldy beans can also be reconditioned by boiling them in hot water or immersing them into propylene glycol or a similar chemical and then drying the beans. Air drying or drying beans in a conventional oven may also have a positive effect on light to moderately wet beans.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) General - All varieties of fresh agricultural produce are subject to some loss in weight in course of transit from the area of production to the center of consumption. This loss is partly due to respiration, the cells of the fruit transported continuing to live and to produce carbon dioxide. Water is also lost by transpiration. Such normal phenomena may sometimes be accompanied by other types of damage - rotting - damage by parasites - etc. Normal loss in weight Such loss depends upon: the nature of the product; its water content; the mode of preparation (or conditioning) and packing; and the conditions of transport. For any given product, the loss in weight may vary according to: the time taken in transport; temperature (and variations of temperature) the water vapor content of the surrounding atmosphere; the degree of agitation of the surrounding atmosphere. The influence of temperature is by far the predominant factor in the rate of desiccation. For instance, in the case of wheat kept for five months in a dry atmosphere, the loss by desiccation approximates: at 16 C. - 0.4% at 27 C. - 1.5% at 37 C. - 2.8% at 44 C. - 4.5% The second factor of importance is the water content of the product. Under the conditions of the above example, but at a temperature of 18 degrees C - Wheat: containing 9% of water loses approx. 0.0% containing 12% of water loses approx. 0.03% containing 14% of water loses approx. 0.64% containing 20% of water loses approx. 1.2% This example shows that an agricultural product will easily lose any water contained in excess of its normal water content. (Note: The above examples do not take into account any continuous renewal of the surrounding atmosphere - naturally by wind or artificially by electric fans - which would accelerate the process of desiccation to a considerable extent.) Most fruit and vegetables lose water. The longer the product is stored, the more the rate of desiccation diminishes. Normal losses in weight (by desiccation) experienced on certain shipments to London of Moroccan fresh fruit and vegetables (time in transit five to six days) resulted in the following: New potatoes - Lose 1 to 2.5% - a basket of 26 kilos net (57.32 lb.) would only weigh about 56 lb. Oranges - Loss 2 to 3.3% - a Californian or Florida case of 30 kilos would lose 1 kilo (i.e. 66 lb. would become on arrival 64 lb. only) Tomatoes - Loss 1 to 4.75% - a package of 10 kilos (i.e. 22 lb.) would have to be sold on the basis of 21 lb. on arrival. These figures are for illustrative purposes only. Potatoes - New potatoes lose water fairly rapidly. Sprouting of potatoes greatly increases the loss of water. Tomatoes - Tomatoes picked and shipped rapidly may arrive at destination with very little, or in some cases, no appreciable loss in weight. Breakdown (whether external or internal) Causes: 1) When goods have been packed in an unsatisfactory condition. e.g., dampness of certain goods, or over-ripeness of some fruits. 2) When the mode of packing is defective, e.g. containers airtight. Other examples of defective packing: bad quality fiber lining (damp, etc.) - use of damp saw dust (noticed where citrus fruits have been conditioned with Spanish type machine and then insufficiently dried and brushed). 3) When the packages have been stowed in ship's hold without provision having been made (by leaving free spaces) for the adequate circulation of air. 4) Where ship's hold has been closed so completely as to be practically airtight, or when the ship's ventilation system is at fault. 5) Where the produce has been carried at too low or high temperature. 6) Where produce has been inadvertently frozen.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) DAMAGE BY PARASITES - It is essential during the packing to eliminate all fruit visibly damaged by parasites, otherwise these parasites develop and cause damage during transport. However, in certain cases and during preliminary stages of the attack, it is almost impossible to detect damage by parasites. For instance tomatoes which are apparently in good condition at the time they are shipped might on arrival at destination be found damaged by "black eye" (or "alternaria") and oranges affected by the ravages of the Mediterranean fly (Ceratite).
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) DAMAGE BY ROT - Consequent upon: breakdown, or attack by parasites, or rupture of the peel or skin prior to or during transport, or unhealthy general condition of the product (i.e., a weakly predisposition, rendering the product more liable to rot). Fruit or vegetables apparently quite sound at time of packing may show signs of rot after a certain time (e.g., development of "blue rot" - Penicillium italicum on citrus fruits, particularly on lemons). In a general manner it can be said that the higher the temperature the greater are the chances of rot or disease development. Rotting of some produce is aggravated by high humidity of the air. The bruising of fruit or vegetables or the rupture of their peels or skin; are the principal causes of subsequent rotting. Such external damage is caused: (1) Very frequently during picking. (2) During conditioning - by inefficient machines, or by defective packaging - an example of the latter being boxes constructed of badly planed planks, the rough surfaces of which cause peel abrasion. Produce may also suffer damage when the containers have been too tightly packed. (3) Apart from bad handling, which is frequently the cause of damage, bad stowing can also be a cause of considerable damage; this owing to the shape or construction of the cases used for the fruit. For example, it frequently happens that orange boxes (type Florida or California) have convex tops, the fruit contained overflowing as it were the level of the topmost horizontal planks. Normally, in order to support the center of the convex top planks (forming the box cover), the central separating planks should be higher than those forming either end of the box. When such boxes are constructed without this important point being seen to, it is obvious that insufficient protection is afforded to the contents in the event of the box being dropped on to its upper side. It also happens that cases may be badly put together, leaving too wide a space between the planks of the sides; thus any fruit partly protruding along these spaces will most probably arrive damaged. As regards unfavorable general conditions of agricultural produce it has been noticed that rot is more liable to develop when fruit or vegetables have been picked or packed during damp weather. The crop, during the period of growth, has been subjected to excessive variations of atmospheric humidity (in oranges alternate periods of damp and dryness cause fissures to appear in the peel, which facilitate subsequent bursting of the fruit). When the crop has been gathered late in the season the percentage of damage by rot increases noticeably. It should be noted that certain chemical treatments are employed with a view to preventing the spreading of damage by rot. Oranges are treated, otherwise than those for British markets, by: A warm 4% solution of borax prior to packing; The "Decco" (gas) system - largely employed in Palestine, after conditioning and before shipment. The practice of wrapping the fruit individually may also reduce the extension of rot-damage. The paper employed is sometimes chemically treated in order to increase the protection afforded (papers impregnated with diphenyl have been developed in England and are used extensively for citrus fruits in the United States). Semi-permeable papers also help to reduce loss from desiccation; the same may be said of moisture proof transparent wrappers and of certain vegetable waxes, the latter being directly applied on the fruit or vegetable.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS LIMES - The lime, which belongs to the rue family (Rutaceae), comes originally from south-east Asia. Sour limes have a considerably greater share of the world market than sweet limes, with only sour limes being sold in Europe. Like other citrus fruit, limes consist of three layers: - the outer peel (flavedo layer), the glands of which exude the essential oils, which produce the typical citrus odor - the whitish albedo layer (inner layer of the peel) - the flesh of the fruit, consisting of approx. 8 - 10 segments, which contains the juice sacs. Limes are very similar to lemons in shape and appearance, but they generally have no apical nipple. The flavedo layer is initially dark green, but it changes in color through green to yellow as it ripens. If the lime is fully ripe, its peel becomes glossy. The greenish, generally seedless flesh is then very juicy and has a sour taste. Since the lime is more sensitive to cold than the other citrus fruits and its peel is thinner than that of the lemon, it is more problematic to transport. Limes are subdivided into two groups of varieties: - West Indian, Mexican or Key lime: small, containing seeds - Tahiti lime or Persian lime: larger, seedless, less aromatic According to the change in the color of the peel is not a reliable measure of the ripeness of the fruit - it is peel gloss which indicates whether a fruit is ripe or not. Glossy limes are ripe, even if they are still green or have green spots. Another measure of ripeness is the Brix value, which determines the sugar/acid ratio of the juice. Unlike many other citrus fruits, the peel of the lime is not chemically treated. The reason for this is that the peel is often used together with the pulp, and treated peel is toxic and flavor-impairing and therefore not suitable for eating.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS MANDARINES - Mandarins (Citrus reticulata) belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from southern China. In addition to mandarins, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes lemons, grapefruits, oranges, limes and easypeelers. Easypeeler is the name given in particular to crosses between oranges and mandarins whose peel is very easy to remove. The mandarin is a yellow to dark-orange fruit, which is smaller than the orange and flattened in shape. Characteristic features are the easily removable thin peel, rich in oil cells, and the sweet, highly aromatic pulp, which usually contains a lot of seeds. Chinese mandarins are larger and contain fewer seeds than most of the Mediterranean varieties. Mandarins are divided into the conventional varieties (mandarins, satsumas, tangerines) and hybrids, which are produced by crossing mandarins, satsumas, tangerines, oranges and grapefruit. Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS ORANGES - Oranges (Citrus sinensis) belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from southern China. In addition to oranges, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes lemons, grapefruits, mandarins, limes and easypeelers. Easypeeler is the name given in particular to crosses between oranges and mandarins whose peel is very easy to remove. - oranges, as is usual for citrus fruit, are most significantly classed by seasonal availability: - winter oranges from the countries of the Mediterranean from November to June - summer oranges from overseas countries from June to November Oranges are also divided into early, middle and late ripening varieties. The varieties also sometimes share a typical fruit color, a distinction being drawn between blond, blood and late oranges. Navel oranges are the most important variety of blond oranges. Blood oranges are subdivided into deep blood oranges (peel and pulp red) and light blood oranges (peel with or without slight red coloration, pulp red). Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS PEARS - Skin discoloration may be due to transportation or storage diseases. (See also Apples). Pears packed in a not fully ripened condition may on delivery be found in a wilted or shriveled state, which is not to be confused with damage due to improper stowage, ventilation, etc. Pears belong to the rose family (Rosaceae) and are thought to originate from parts of Asia and Europe. Pears are a pomaceous fruit, like apples and quinces. Pomaceous fruits are false fruits with whitish, firm pulp and a generally sour-sweet flavor. The small brown seeds (pips) are located in a parchment-like core with five compartments. Depending on time of harvest, pears are subdivided into early varieties (which reach eating ripeness on the tree) and late varieties (which reach eating ripeness only postharvest). Pears vary in color from green through yellow-green to yellow. Some varieties are even red in parts. The low fruit acid content in many varieties of pear makes them very sweet. Imports from the southern hemisphere ensure a plentiful supply all year round. Pears picked when green have a turnipy taste and tend to shrivel prematurely. Preclimacteric pears do not ripen easily and remain green and hard, and have a particularly large number of stone cells grouped around the core. To determine the degree of ripeness of pomaceous fruit, the hardness of the pulp is measured using a pressure tester, which involves pressing a cylindrical steel pin into the pulp. The maximum pressure is read off in pounds. Pears exhibit a degree of hardness of 9 - 10 pounds, which decreases by 3 - 4 pounds during ripening. By comparison, the reading for most varieties of apple lies between 18 and 20 pounds, their hardness decreasing by 5 - 6 pounds during ripening. Pears are therefore more sensitive than apples.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES ARTICHOKES - The artichoke, of Mediterranean origin, is a thistle-like vegetable (edible artichoke) of the composite-flower family (Compositae). The flower heads of the artichoke plant, which grow at the ends of long stalks, reach a diameter of approx. 5 - 15 cm. They consist of a very fleshy bottom part and bracts which overlap one another like roof tiles. Only the bottom part and the lower, likewise very fleshy parts of the bracts are eaten. Artichoke color differs according to variety and ranges from whitish through green to purple. Artichokes have to be harvested before the flowers open and the blue petals become visible. Open bracts are an indication that the artichoke is already overripe and quality will very quickly degrade. Artichokes in this condition are no longer suitable for transport. A distinction is generally drawn between globe and Jerusalem artichokes. There follows a list of some of the many varieties: whitish color, pointed shape: - "Blanc d'Oran" - "Gros Macau" green color, round shape, closed head: - "Laon artichoke" - "Green Globe" purple color, long narrow shape, head somewhat opened: - "Violet de Provence" - "Violet de Perpignan" Its slightly bitter flavor (caused by the bitter substance cynarin) and high vitamin content make the artichoke a delicacy.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES ASPARAGUS - A wilted appearance may be due to the age of the vegetable, and damage of this nature should not be confused with deterioration due to improper stowage, storage conditions, etc. Asparagus, which comes originally from the Middle East, belongs to the lily family (Liliaceae) and has been cultivated for over 5000 years. During growth, the stalk shoots (asparagus spears) sprout upright out of the rootstock (rhizome). The tip (head) of the spear, which is approx. 20 - 30 cm long, is covered with small scale-like leaves. Depending on the variety, the plants are cultivated in raised mounds or level beds. Asparagus is a bush-type plant. After harvest, the shoots develop into shrub-like plants, ensuring the absorption of nutrients. In the autumn, the above-ground parts die back. The rhizomes regenerate after the end of harvest, so allowing the regrowth of strong asparagus plants. Asparagus is considered a particularly healthy vegetable, due to the wide range of nutrients and minerals and high vitamin content. Differing cultivation and harvesting methods result in the following three color variants: - Blanched or white asparagus: Blanched asparagus is grown in raised mounds. As soon as the tip peeks through the soil of the mound, the asparagus is harvested (cut). Immediate harvesting prevents the asparagus from changing color. - Purple asparagus: If asparagus is not cut immediately after its tip emerges from the soil, the part of the plant above ground turns purple to blue, as the pigment anthocyanin is formed by exposure to sunlight. - Green asparagus: Green asparagus is grown in level beds where it is exposed to sunlight. Firstly, the pigment anthocyanin forms, resulting in purple coloring and then the asparagus turns green due to chlorophyll formation.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES CARROTS - Carrots belong to the Umbelliferae family and are thought to be of Asian origin. Carrots, which are root vegetables, are divided into greenhouse and early carrots, summer and autumn carrots and late and keeping carrots. Greenhouse and early carrots have a short root, which is usually blunt at the lower end, while later varieties have a long-pointed root. They are orange-red in color and consist of the central medulla and the outer cortex. Their color is provided by their high carotene content (carrots have the highest carotene content of all vegetable species). Since the medulla has a lower carotene and sugar content than the cortex, it is somewhat lighter in color and of lower nutritional value. For this reason, carrots with a thick cortex and a small, well-colored medulla are preferred. The relatively high sugar content gives carrots a delicate flavor. The green foliage grows at the upper end of the root, and, in the case of early carrots (bunch carrots), is not removed. However, later varieties are sold washed without their foliage.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES GARLIC - When old this commodity may heat up very quickly, thereby losing weight rapidly and at the same time a very strong odor of garlic is noticeable. The garlic continues to dry out until it becomes useless. This applies only to shipments of old garlic and care must be exercised so that the condition is not confused in any way with short shipment in weight at source of origin. Should garlic become crushed in stowage, the moisture, together with the high temperature of the holds, may cause rottenness in a very short time. Is subject to a natural loss in weight due to drying out. Garlic is the bulb of the garlic plant and belongs to the lily family (Liliaceae). It is native to Asia Minor and India. The garlic bulb forms at the foot of the plant and has a broad, oval, flattened basal plate and up to 15 bulblets or "cloves". The cloves are enclosed in a paper-like skin. In addition, the entire garlic bulb is surrounded by several dry, brittle, white to reddish layers of skin, which readily break up. The typical garlic flavor and odor are produced by the essential oil allicin. Oil content: 0.12 - 0.20% essential oils, in particular allicin.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES POTATOES - Potatoes are damaged through moisture and heat, as these cause the revival of the potatoes, with consequent sprouting. Good ventilation is also required for the storate and/or stowage of potatoes, as they emit carbon dioxide, which should be cleared, and require oxygen for preservation. Potatoes shrink through age, and if placed in a dry place the shrinkage will be accentuated through evaporation. If potatoes are stowed or stacked over eight tiers in height the bottom tiers are liable to be damaged by the pressure caused by the heavy weight overstowing same. This specially refers to potatoes in bags or in frail cases and crates. Sprouting can also be due to the potatoes not having been thoroughly cleaned at origin; soil adhering to the skin of the potatoes accelerates this. A black soft condition of potatoes may be evidence of poor ventilation in storage or stowage, whereas a black discoloration just below the surface is probably evidence of freezing. In the latter case the vegetable will probably be found in a moist condition. Decay may also produce this moist condition. A green discoloration of the surface can be indicative of undue exposure to strong sunlight either after lifting or in storage. Potatoes contaminated with the disease Spongospora subterranean may be refused admission to certain countries. The disease is in the form of a mildew of innocent character, which may be dealt with by fumigation, and is not normally regarded as a serious matter except that it may result in a refusal on the part of some countries to permit entry. The potato belongs to the nightshade family (Solanaceae). It is originally a native of South America (Peruvian-Bolivian Andes and coastal areas) and was known there by AD 200, arriving in Europe in the 16th century. Because of their similarity in appearance to truffles, the Italians named them tartufoli, from which their German name "Kartoffeln" is derived. Potatoes are the starch-rich tubers of the underground stems (stolons) of Solanum tuberosum, serving to store nutrients for the parent plant. The following criteria are used in dividing potatoes into their various varieties: - type of use: table, processing and seed potatoes - time of harvest: very early varieties (for immediate consumption), early varieties (suitable for potato salads, since not very mealy), medium early varieties (for cellar storage), medium late and very late varieties (of which some are good table potatoes for cellar storage and some are fodder and processing potatoes, since they are often very mealy) - tuber shape: round, oval, long, long oval or kidney-shaped - color of flesh: yellow or white - color of skin: light yellow, ochre-colored to red - skin texture: rough-skinned, smooth-skinned Early potatoes are loose-skinned, i.e. they have a thin skin which flakes off easily, causing them to spoil easily. Mid and late varieties are firm-skinned and therefore more resistant. Peeled potatoes are composed as follows: - 16 - 18% starch - 75 - 78% water - 2% protein - 1% minerals - 1% cellulose
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES POTATOES (Seed) - Care should be taken in handling at port of shipment to avoid bruises to the potatoes, and they should not be loaded wet. Either of these two states is a cause of wet rot setting in, and of course when conjoined can cause very quickly loss of practically an entire shipment. Forced ventilation by fans in the holds is an excellent deterrent to rot. Potatoes shipped from Holland during the months of November and Care must be exercised in differentiating between loss due to inherent vice and that caused by normal tearing of the bags. Cases are known of potatoes having arrived in a decomposed state, the liquid given off staining and rotting the bags, with the result that the bags burst at these points, causing sound as well as bad potatoes to fall out. Should the sack be re-sewn careful attention should be paid to the re-sewn portion of the bags, as loss might be regarded as being due to normal tearing of the bags, when careful examination of that part of the bag repaired may lead surveyors to decide otherwise. Potatoes are subject to a natural loss in weight.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) MOLD DAMAGE - Since fruit must not suffer undue loss of weight during storage and transport, it is not practicable to recommend dry storage. Actually, the principal defense of fruits and vegetables against mold deterioration is their natural surface protective tissues. For this reason the greatest care must be exercised in harvesting, packing, loading and transporting such commodities as bananas, citrus fruit, etc. Other factors which add to keeping quality are (1) absence of fungoid or physiological disease at the time of harvesting, and (2) avoidance of cold store temperatures sufficient to lead to physiological breakdown of the protective tissues. The optimum storage temperature varies according to the type of fruit.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS AVOCADOS - A tropical fruit liable to be affected by shocks during transit. Requires careful handling and good ventilation. A light brown discoloration is not necessarily indicative of decay, such markings usually only affecting the surface, leaving the fruit underneath unaffected. This may usually be distinguished from decay, as the latter will produce dark depressions in the form of spots. Avocados are stone fruits. They belong to the laurel family (Lauraceae) and are cultivated in tropical countries. They grow on 8 - 10 m high trees with evergreen, laurel-like leaves. Depending on the variety, the elongated, pear-shaped fruits have a thin, thick, smooth or rough skin, which may be green or brownish-red to black and encloses the whitish to green flesh. Their flavor is sweetish to nutty. The light-brown stone is as large as a walnut. It constitutes approx. 20% of the total fruit and is inedible. Avocados have a relatively high nutritional value. Of particular note is the high vitamin content (C, B1 and B2) and carotene content (provitamin A). The fruits weigh approx. 400 g and reach a size of approximately 10 cm. Oil content: the fruit flesh contains 15 - 30% oil, "avocado oil", which is similar to olive oil and lends the pulp its buttery consistency. Avocados do not become soft and ripe enough to eat on the tree, so they are picked at the preclimacteric stage while firm. Avocados picked too early do not ripen properly and become wrinkly. During ripening, the water content falls and the fat content rises. The best criterion for judging ripeness is the ratio of fat content to dry solids, for example the Californian pulp value amounts to 8% fat and 17% dry solids.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS CLEMENTINE - Clementines belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from southern China. They are a cross between the mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and the Seville orange (Citrus auratium). They are an easily peelable ("Easypeeler"), moderate-sized, ellipsoidal orange citrus fruit containing no or few seeds. In addition to oranges, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes lemons, grapefruits, mandarins, limes and easypeelers. Easypeeler is the name given in particular to crosses between oranges and mandarins whose peel is very easy to remove. Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS GRAPEFRUIT - The grapefruit belongs to the rue family (Rutaceae) and comes originally from Central America. It is not related botanically to the shaddock, which originates from Malaysia. However, the language of commerce does not distinguish between the shaddock, which is no longer cultivated commercially, and the grapefruit. The name grapefruit finds its origin in the fact that the fruits grow close together like bunches of grapes. The grapefruit is a large, yellow-peeled, round citrus fruit weighing approximately 250 - 700 g. Its pulp is very juicy and has a refreshing, aromatic taste. The bitter taste is caused by the glycoside naringin; the amount of this bitter substance present varies according to variety and place of origin. Grapefruit from the tropics generally have a sweeter, less sharp flavor than those from cooler regions of cultivation. The "Ruby" and "Ruby red" varieties, for example, are red-fleshed, seedless fruits with a reddish tinge to the peel in parts (russeting) and a milder, sweeter flavor than other varieties. In international trade, they are two of the most important varieties. In addition to grapefruit, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes lemons, oranges, mandarins, limes and easypeelers. Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS LEMONS - Lemons belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from Asia. In addition to lemons, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes and easypeelers. Lemons are berry fruit consisting of three layers: - the outer yellow peel (exocarp, flavedo), the glands of which exude the essential oil of lemon, which produces the typical citrus odor - the whitish mesocarp (albedo) - the endocarp consisting of 8 - 10 segments filled with juice sacs (vesicles) Lemons are usually of an elongated shape with a peel of variable thickness and pointed tip. The juicy pulp of a medium-sized lemon contains 30 - 35 g of lemon juice, which has a high vitamin C content (60 - 100 mg per 100 g of fruit). Lemons are divided into winter and summer fruits. The degree of ripeness of citrus fruit is determined on the basis of three criteria: - by the ripeness index: this is determined by the Brix value, which is a measure of the sugar/acid ratio of the fruit. According to citrus fruit with a Brix value of between 10 and 16 have good flavor. - by cutting at purchase: freshness is determined by cutting the fruit in half from the stem-end to the opposite end. If the fruit is withered at the stem-end, it must not be shipped. - by peel color: the color of the peel is not necessarily a reliable indicator of ripeness, but its surface gloss is. Glossy lemons are ripe, even if they are still green or have green spots. Fungicides are diphenyl, orthophenylphenol (OPP) and thiabendazole (TBZ). Diphenyl can be recognized from its naphthalene-like odor. The fungicides primarily prevent blue and green molds, but they do impair flavor and indication of their use is mandatory.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS MANGOES - Mangoes belong to the sumach family (Anacardiaceae) and were first cultivated in India some 4000 years ago. Together with the pineapple, they are considered the most delicious of tropical fruits and they have the highest vitamin A content of any fruit. The many different varieties mean that they vary greatly in shape, color, size and weight. A mango may be oval, roundish, elongated or kidney-shaped; it may be green, green-yellow or even orange to red in color. The length of the mango is up to 25 cm, its maximum width 10 cm. The heaviest mangoes weigh up to 2 kg. The delicious yellow to orange colored flesh, which constitutes 60 - 70% of the fruit, is located under the thin, inedible outer skin. Fibers join the flesh to the large, egg-shaped white stone inside, so explaining the difficulty of removing the stone from the flesh. Mangoes are harvested when unripe (at the preclimacteric); they must still be green and firm-fleshed. Harvesting is done by hand or using special fruit picking poles. The greatest possible care must be taken with harvesting as even the smallest of cracks results in rapid spoilage by rotting. At the time of harvest, the mangoes must be capable of post-ripening, as they will otherwise not reach optimum quality. Post-ripening may be accelerated by temperatures of 25 - 30 degrees C and treatment with ethylene. Once harvested, any exuding latex is cleaned off and the mango is treated with hot water and fungicides in order to extend the relatively short storage life.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS PEACHES - Lack of color or a greenish color indicates lack or ripeness, and if packed for transportation in this condition the fruit may shrivel and become tough. This should not be mistaken fox damage due to improper conditions of stowage, storage, etc. Unevenness and gumminess of the surface indicates internal development of worm. Peaches (Prunus persica) belong to the Pruonoideae subfamily of the rose family (Rosaceae). Originally from China, they reached Europe via Japan and Persia. Peaches, like cherries, plums, apricots, mangoes and avocados, are stone fruit. Stone fruit are indehiscent fruit which have fleshy pulp containing a hard stone in the middle which encloses the seed.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS PINEAPPLES - Pineapples originally come from Paraguay. Columbus discovered them in 1493 in Guadeloupe and from then on they became native to all tropical latitudes. The pineapple is the cylindrical false fruit (pseudo-fruit) of the family Bromeliaceae and consists of a thickened, fleshy, very juicy axis core and inedible, scaly, warty skin, resembling a pine cone: only the polygonal, flattened outsides of the individual fruits are visible at the surface of the multiple fruit (syncarp). The fruit is topped by a crown of prickly leaves. The axis core (central cylinder) in the middle of the false fruit is woody and therefore inedible. The English name "pineapple" points to the similarity to a pine cone. Important commercial varieties include "Smooth Cayenne", the most important variety in the canning industry, the yellow "Queen", which is cultivated for eating fresh, and the Spanish group, "Red Spanish" likewise being suitable for eating fresh. The pulp generally only reaches its full flavor if the fruit is left to ripen on the plant. The pale yellow to golden pulp is high in sugar and acids and has an excellent flavor (eating, luxury or dessert fruit). The fruit is harvested while still firm (two-thirds ripe). In most varieties, the degree of ripeness of the fruit is clear from the yellowness of the skin. However, a pineapple may be fully ripe while still green on the outside. If one of the inner crown leaves can be pulled out easily, the pineapple is fully ripe. Pineapples intended for shipping are harvested when green, while those intended for immediate eating are harvested in the semiripe state and those intended for canning in the ripe state. Since pineapples are a nonclimacteric fruit, they should not be cut before ripening begins if a good flavor and quality are to develop. A distinction is drawn between greenhouse products, e.g. from the Azores (ripe for harvesting after nine months, externally more attractive than outdoor pineapples but more sensitive and with a shorter keeping period) and outdoor pineapples (ripe after 14 - 22 months, externally not so uniform as greenhouse products, but more robust and better suited to long journeys).
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES CAULIFLOWER - A smudgy and speckled appearance may be evidence of the presence of plant lice.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES CELERY - The browning arid drying of the tops and conditions of pithiness indicate improper freezing.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES CHICORY - Chicory is a delicate commodity easily damaged by contact with water, resulting in discoloration and mold. Chicory should be double-dried before shipment. When not thoroughly dried, damage as above may occur without the chicory having been in contact with water.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS APPLES - A brown discoloration on the surface may have arisen solely as a result of storage and transportation diseases which may be apparent at the time of or shortly after removal from cold storage. This should not be confused with decay arising out of mishandling. Apples wrapped in oiled paper seldom suffer from such disease. Subject to a natural loss in weight. Apples (rose family, Rosaceae) are a pomaceous false fruit with whitish, firm pulp and a generally sour-sweet flavor. The small brown seeds (pips) are located in a parchment-like core with 5 compartments. The apple tree originated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and spread to all temperate zones of the world. Numerous apple varieties have been developed over the several thousand years that they have been cultivated. Taste and color differ depending on the variety and stage of ripeness. A distinction may be drawn between dessert fruit (fruit for eating fresh), commercial fruit (industrial use, e.g. for apple puree, apple jelly and obtaining pectin) and cider apples (apple juice, wine). Apples are divided into summer, autumn and late varieties (keeping apples) depending on when they ripen: the latter are the most common. Apples are available all year round owing to their different ripening times and long-term storage as well as imports from the southern hemisphere.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES CUCUMBERS - A dull coloring with hard seeds and a puffy appearance indicates over-maturity and should not be confused with the results of improper stowage or storage conditions, etc. Cucumbers, botanically berry fruit, belong to the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and have juicy, fibrous flesh. Due to its subtropical origins, the cucumber's heat requirements are high and it is therefore cultivated predominantly as a greenhouse product. There are two principal varieties, distinguished by their manner of cultivation: - slicing cucumbers, snake cucumbers: these are cultivated in greenhouses and polytunnels and are therefore largely unaffected by external weather conditions, making them suitable for cultivation virtually anywhere in the world. They are approx. 40 cm long, reach a diameter of 10 cm and are smooth-skinned. - pickling cucumbers: these are outdoor-grown and therefore have particular climatic requirements. They are sometimes only a few cm long, but may grow as long as 20 cm, and are thick and rough-skinned. When unripe, cucumbers are green-colored. As they ripen, they turn yellowish-white or yellowish-brown. Modern cucumbers are basically free from bitter substances. However, the bitter substance elaterin may sometimes form in pickling cucumbers in particular, where it may be present in particularly large quantities at the stem-end.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS PLUMS - A shriveled appearance and poor color may be due to the fruit having been packed before being properly ripened. Damage of this nature should not be confused with damage resulting from improper ventilation or stowage.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES ONIONS - Liable to a natural loss in weight. If subjected to warm and humid atmosphere, will decay readily through natural process. Onions exude carbon dioxide, and ventilation must be sufficient to carry away this gas and to supply oxygen. Shipment in close mesh bags, not allowing adequate ventilation, will cause deterioration. Principal causes of damage are lack of ventilation or contact with fresh or seawater. Protracted contact with water will result in rotting. When subjected to heat and moisture onions will eventually sprout; shrinkage then takes place, resulting in depreciation in value. Onions damaged by freezing may not be a total loss. The freezing may have affected certain of the scales, leaving others unaffected. Onions so affected can be restored by drying. Egyptian onions, if shipped after the middle of April, are nearly ready to germinate, and this may occur during the voyage. Incipient germination can be detected by a small green sprig just showing at the top of the onion. The edible onion belongs to the lily family (Liliaceae) and comes originally from Central Asia. The onion (bulb) is composed of a highly compressed basal plate, which gives rise to the roots, and the main shoot apex, around which the thickened onion scale leaves are arranged. These end in the onion neck, from which the above-ground shoot or peduncle emerges. The outermost scale leaves are dry and protect the onion from external influences. The ripening process starts when the onion bulb proper forms. Bulb formation is determined by day length and varies with the variety of onion. Postharvest, the onion undergoes a post-ripening process. This post-ripening does not consist merely of the purely physical process of drying of the onions but also of the attainment of a certain physiological stage known as sprout or growth dormancy. During this process, the roots, peduncle and outermost scale leaves dry; the latter change color and lie tightly around the onion neck, providing protection against evaporation and attack from microorganisms. This process is further assisted by subsequent post-drying.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES PEAS - Subject to natural loss in weight due to drying out.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES PEAS (dried) - Peas are the seeds of the annual pea plant belonging to the legume family (Leguminosae) and are transported in dry form, i.e. dried peas are peas which have fully ripened in the pod on the plant. They are mainly garden peas of a yellow or green color. Marrowfat peas are not suitable as dried peas because they do not become soft. Pea plants are among the oldest cultivated plants. Peas are 4.0 - 7.5 mm in diameter.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES SWEET PEPPERS - Sweet peppers come originally from South and Central America and belong to the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Sweet peppers were introduced into Europe for the first time at the beginning of the 16th century. Although the fruit of the sweet pepper plant are referred to colloquially as pods, they are actually berries. The various varieties of sweet pepper differ greatly in color, shape and size. Sweet peppers are often green or red in color, but sometimes also yellow, white, purple or black. Green and red sweet peppers are of one and the same variety, the difference in color arising simply from different harvest times. Green sweet peppers are not fully mature and, although they continue to ripen during storage and do turn red, they never reach such an intense shade as sweet peppers which have been left to mature fully on the plant. The inside of a sweet pepper is hollow and subdivided by partitions, to which the whitish seeds are attached. The outside of the sweet pepper comprises a very shiny skin. The pungent flavor of the sweet pepper is derived from the alkaloid capsaicin. However, the capsaicin content of sweet peppers is not very high, so their flavor is quite mild. Sweet peppers are distinguished by a high vitamin C content, which is higher than that of all other types of fruit and vegetable.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) VEGETABLES TOMATOES - while this is technically a fruit, it is considered by most to be in the vegetable family. It is available year round as it is grown in several countries such as the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and the Netherlands. The optimal transit temperature is about 13 degrees Centigrade (55 degrees F) at a relative humidity at 90-95% for mature green tomatoes. For firm ripe produce, the temperature and rh levels are lower, 10 degrees C (50 F) and 55-60% respectively. Tomatoes are generally loose bulk packed in two piece fiberboard cartons, each with a separate lid/cover.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS BANANAS - This is the crescent shaped fruit of several tree-like tropical or sub-tropical plants of the genus Musa, especially M. sapientum, a widely cultivated species having broad leaves and hanging clusters of this edible fruit. While this plant looks like a tree it is actually the world's largest herb. Bananas have white, pulpy flesh and thick, easily removable, by peeling, yellow or reddish skin. Bananas are shipped green in color and both the color and the size are measured in the field prior to the actual harvesting. Color is based on an industry ripeness scale that ranges from the pastel-green No. 1 to the No. 7 bright yellow with brown spots. It is worth noting that the time difference between these two extremes is normally only 4-5 days. The fruit is the fourth most valued food in the world and also ranks number 4 as an exported agricultural commodity. Bananas are available year round from Ecuador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, Panama, Guatemala, Mexico, the West Indies and Hawaii. They are the favorite fruit in America with about 20 billion "fingers" consumed each year. These are typically packed in plastic-lines fully telescoping corrugated cartons with built-in perforations allowing for air circulation and constructed so that the inner and outer flaps do not meet thus providing another opening in the package. In some instances the plastic liners are sealed in order to create a closed environment to retard ripening. Cartons are either hand stacked in containers or palletized for break-bulk reefer vessels or trailers. Virtually all exported bananas are shipped via ocean. While the majority of the fruit is carried by specialized refrigerated vessels, "reefer" containers are making increased inroads into this trade. At this time the niche reefer vessels transport nearly 60% of all perishables with bananas representing the largest single commodity. These vessels are pallet-friendly and are geared to the seasonality of the business as opposed to the scheduled voyages of most container ships. On the other hand, refrigerated containers do offer ease of manufacture; however, the available slots on the conventional container ship are about 700. Bananas are shipped between 56-58 degrees F at 90-95% relative humidity. Transit life is not that long under conventional shipment methods, a maximum of 4 weeks, so anything to speed transit and/or retard the natural ripening process of bananas is prudent. Since this fruit is both an ethylene producer and ethylene sensitive, they give off this gas during respiration exposing them, a detrimental development as this causes premature ripening. A drop below 90% rh or even a 2-3 degree temperature deviation can turn this already fragile fruit into mush. High temperatures can lead to rapid ripening while chilling injury (discoloration under the peel) results from temperatures that are too low. Bananas can be injured by oxygen levels less than 14% or carbon dioxide levels in excess of 5%. Lower oxygen levels can cause off-flavor, peel discoloration and can inhibit natural ripening. High carbon dioxide amounts can cause fruit with green skin yet soft flesh. Therefore, they are ideal candidates for some sort of modified or controlled atmosphere shipping. The optimal combination would be a minimum of 16% oxygen and a maximum 5% carbon dioxide as this mixture of gases when introduced in the cargo space can inhibit ripening and thus extend shelf life. Hydration is another concern. Water loss in transit is a given. The banana is fragile and is subject to bruising, abrasions and other blemishes caused by rough or improper handling or stowage. Bananas are also susceptible to Black Sigatoka, the most predominant leaf spot disease. This pre-shipment condition not only can lead to significant reduction in crop yields but it also can result in premature ripening, a serious defect in export shipments, that is usually not noticed until after the bananas arrive at destination. The most effective way to control this scourge to the crop is several applications of fungicide. This tends to be fairly expensive and out of the financial reach of the smaller farmers. Consumers in most developed countries tend to be fairly picky with marketability linked to quality. Retailers offer a full spectrum of colors so there may be a chance that they can find a buyer for over-ripened bananas. In fact they are much sweeter and are used in many restaurant desserts. Many import centers and importers have ripening warehouses that can stop this process so this may offer some immediate relief and stability to bananas.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS BLUEBERRIES - Blueberries, also known as bilberries, belong to the heather family (Ericaceae). A basic distinction can be drawn between wild blueberries and cultivated blueberries. Wild blueberries grow in the wild, cultivated blueberries, on the other hand, are cultivated in fields. The color of blueberries reveals whether or not they are ripe. The initially green fruits turn blue as they ripen, while the stem-end turns from red to blue.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS CITRUS FRUIT - Liable to damage from Mediterranean fly, which can easily be distinguished by the characteristic puncturing by the fly of the fruit epidermis, beneath which it lays eggs. As a result of this puncturing the fruit turns yellow around the place of contact. At a later state and degree, when the eggs develop, the same place turns from yellow to black. April and May are the months during which the disease is prevalent, the damage being conspicuous when the fruit is packed. A brown discoloration of the skin of the fruit may also be the result of the chemical treatment of the fruit before shipment, but this should not in the ordinary course of events affect the fruit's quality. Dryness at the stem may be caused through late picking.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS CHERRIES - Sweet cherries belong to the rose family (Rosaceae) and are a stone fruit. They originated from wild cherries and are subdivided into heart and white-heart cherries. Heart cherries have soft flesh and are therefore not so prone to bursting. They are, however, less transportable than firm-fleshed white-heart cherries, which, in contrast, have the disadvantage of a greater susceptibility to bursting. Sweet cherries come in several shades: yellow, bright (light) and dark (reddish to black). Heart cherries are generally dark in color, while white-heart cherries are frequently bright-colored. Inside, cherries have a hard stone enclosing the seed and the stone is itself surrounded by fleshy pulp. Sweet cherries are harvested from the trees, which vary markedly in height, only when fully ripe, since they are not amenable to post-ripening. If cherries are picked too early, they are no longer able to develop their typical characteristics and spoil very rapidly.
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS GRAPES - Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are berry fruit belonging to the grapevine family (Vitaceae). Grapes come originally from south-west Asia. Grapes are cultivated on vines (climbing shrubs). Dessert grapes are very carefully cut by hand and individual sick or damaged berries are removed. They are harvested at full ripeness, i.e. at the climacteric stage, as they do not post-ripen well after harvesting at the preclimacteric stage. The "Brix" value is used to determine the time of harvest. The berries on the panicles (commonly known as "bunches") are usually covered by a whitish wax layer or bloom which can easily be wiped off and provides natural protection. Before being eaten, dessert grapes should be washed thoroughly in order to remove any traces of spray. Grapes are cultivated in the open, under glass (Belgium, Netherlands) and in plastic tunnels. Cultivation under glass and in tunnels allows harvesting times to be extended. The following varieties may be distinguished: - White varieties (green, yellow to amber-colored varieties) - Dark varieties (red, blue to black varieties) which get their color from anthocyanins (oenin) - Waltham Cross grapes, so named because they were first exported to South Africa from the English town of this name. These have a stronger skin, are not so tightly packed on the bunch and are thus less susceptible to spoilage - Muscat grapes, which have a musky aroma, which occur as both white and dark varieties - Varieties with up to 5 seeds, although the seedless varieties are more popular
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT (Fresh) FRUITS KIWIFRUIT - The kiwifruit, which was originally native to China and is therefore sometimes known as Chinese gooseberry, belongs to the family Actinidiaceae. It is named after the New Zealand ostrich-like bird. Like grapevines, kiwi plants grow on plant supports, to which their very long creeping branches are secured. The berry fruit has an elongated oval shape and may be up to 10 cm long, 5 cm wide and 100 g in weight. It has a hard, inedible skin, which is initially green and becomes brown as the fruit ripens and which is covered in short brown hairs. The hairs serve to protect the fruit from excessive water loss by evaporation. The pulp is soft and contains a large number of small seeds. The kiwifruit has one of the highest vitamin C contents of any fruit (up to 380 mg/100 g). Kiwifruit are harvested at the preclimacteric stage (picking ripeness), to ensure the longest possible storage and transport life. One way of determining the stage of ripeness is the color and size of the fruit. These days, however, the ripeness criterion commonly applied is the Brix value, which is a measure of the sugar/acid ratio of the juice. New Zealand law states, for instance, that a minimum value of 6.25% must be reached before harvest can begin. The fruit is ready to eat when it yields under light finger pressure. Ripening may be greatly accelerated by storing the kiwifruit in a closed room together with fruit which produces large quantities of ethylene (e.g. apples). Kiwifruit are harvested by hand owing to their high sensitivity
VENEERS (See Wood Veneers)
VERMICULITE When in exfoliated form, can expand up to twenty times its own volume in water, and is therefore much damaged by water. This can also cause damage to other cargo by pressure of expansion.
VERMICULITE ORE Should be unaffected by contact with water.
VINEGAR Shortage through leakage may be a result of careless handling. Exposure to air will result in the formation of "mother of vinegar" by bacteria, which is a jelly-like substance. This substance can be removed by filtering and the quality of the vinegar will not be affected, provided the spoilage is not too great. There may be a loss of acidity.
VISCOSE FILM (See Transparent Wrapping Paper)
VITRIOL GREEN (Copperas; Sulphate of Iron) A product used in the dyeing industry. Liable to rot the bags or other containers in which it is shipped; liable to loss through seepage. Affected by humidity.
VOMICA NUT (Nux Vomica) (See Nuts and Kernels)
WASTE PAPER Waste paper is a secondary raw material (for use in pulping), which may be reused, e.g. in the production of gray chip. It consists of clean rejects/trimmings from paper factories, but may also comprise household waste and waste from a very wide range of economic sectors. Waste paper comes from printing works, paper processing plants, department stores, self-service stores, homes etc. It is treated as follows: 1. The waste paper is pulped and defibered in a pulper. 2. It is cleaned, i.e. extraneous substances are removed. 3. The printing inks are removed by deinking. The printing inks are dissolved out of the fibers by water, sodium hydroxide solution, soap and air using the flotation process. Assisted by soap, the air bubbles gather around the printing inks and rise to the surface where the deinking foam is skimmed off. 4. After cleaning and refining, it arrives at the pulp proportioning system, where it is processed into light-colored grades of paper.
WATTLE EXTRACT (See Mimosa Extract)
WAXED PAPER Waxed paper is a base paper coated with paraffin or microcrystalline waxes. This base paper is generally wood-free and has a basis weight of 35 - 45 g/m2.
WHALE OIL (See Bulk Oils and Fats)
WHEAT (See Grain)
WILLOWS If shipped partly green, the moisture may ferment and probably cause rotting during the voyage. Dampness, humidity or contact with moisture can cause mildew and distortion through swelling. The weight of the goods may vary from day to day according to the condition of the atmosphere.
WINDOW GLASS (See Glass)
WINES (in Casks) Ordinary loss due to normal leakage varies with the type of wood used and the age of the cask. Chestnut casks show a higher ordinary loss than oak and new casks a higher loss than old casks. Excessive heat encourages fermentation and may also cause staves of the cask to open up, with consequent leakage of contents. The air which displaces the wine which has been lost through leakage may cause the remainder of the contents in the barrel to turn sour. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
WIRE ROD Wire rod is a rolled alloy or nonalloy steel product, produced from a semi (e.g. bloom) and having a round, rectangular or other cross-section. Particularly fine cross-sections may be achieved by subsequent cold forming (drawing). Wire rod is wound into coils and transported in this form.
WOLFRAM ORE An ore from which tungsten is obtained. Subject to loss in weight due to seepage from the containers. See also ORES.
WOOD OIL Cloudiness may be caused by a small percentage of moisture. A slight leakage of steam from the heating coils in the carrying vessel's hold would produce this condition. See also BULK OILS and FATS.
WOOD VENEERS Mold damage may be the result of inherent moisture due to improper treatment. Veneers are thin sheets of lumber (usually 0.6 - 6.0 mm thick) mechanically separated from a slab of lumber or log and used as a decorative covering for furniture. They are made from roundwood. Roundwood is the term used to describe logs cut to specific lengths across the grain. Veneers are a valuable cargo, especially when produced from rare or exotic wood species.
WOODPULP Contact with water liable to rust stain the wrappers, but should not necessarily damage the contents other than causing possible bursting of the bags through expansion.
WOOL GENERAL - The most frequent cause of damage to wool is contact with moisture (fresh or salt water). It has been ascertained that in a humidity of 95 hygrometric degrees, wool will charge itself up to 25% to 30%. Wool has a high tendency to absorb moisture, which varies with its different physical states. With washed wool 17% is taken as a basis, carded wool 18% to 25% and wool not thoroughly washed 18%. The tendency of wool to absorb atmospheric humidity provokes an increase in the temperature of a mass of fiber due to the transition of the moisture from its gaseous form to a liquid state. Wool when packed must not be excessively compressed in the bale for, in consequence of the hygroscopic property of the fiber, a considerable rise of temperature in the interior of the mass may take place, causing the fiber to deteriorate and enervate. It is known that water even when cold makes the wool fiber turgid, provoking an enlargement of the diameter of the transversal section, which increase may reach 16%. Excessive humidity affects the external stratum of the fiber, destroying it rapidly, causing it to take a yellowish shade, and lowering its resistance to strain. Greasy raw wool in its original state and fibers which have not been de-fatted are liable to be affected by microphytes at a lower humidity degree than that at which they have appeared on washed wool. This is because of the hair of dirty wool being covered with fatty substances and with nitrogenic secretions which in a humid state constitute a good nourishing substratum for the life of both molds and bacteria. These bacteria first destroy the superficial cells of the fiber and then penetrate the wall of the surface cells and finally disintegrate the cohesive texture. Wool affected by bacteria presents a higher affinity for acid and direct coloring matter, which it absorbs in a non-uniform manner. It gets more rapidly wet than a sound fiber and suffers a higher loss of weight when subjected to washing, dyeing and bleaching. Bacteria causing discoloration and deterioration are likely to develop when the wool is wet and exposed to air, as on the sheep's back in rainy weather, or during an interval between wet processing. So far as is known there is no chemical treatment as protection against bacteria and mold which does not result in discoloration of the wool. As to the action of chloride of sodium on wool, it is known that, where there has been contact with salt as a result of damping with seawater, subsequent immersion in a water solution will provoke a greater swelling of the fiber than in the case of rain water damage. In the event of moisture in the bales and in the coverings having been ascertained, an analysis of samples and wrappings will determine whether the moisture and stains evident in the same parts of the covering have been caused by rain water or by salt water. Research into the existence of marine salts must not be carried out by processing the liquid that results from washing the coverings and the wool by aid of distilled water, but by analyzing the preparation obtained by previously reducing the fiber and coverings to ashes in a refractory receptacle. Wools, after contamination by salt water, must be opened up and washed or scoured with fresh water. Unless this is done, the wool will never dry out properly and is always liable to collect moisture from the air. Wool which has been wetted by fresh water should also be opened up for drying. All wool, more especially greasy wool, remaining in bales in a wet condition will heat in a few days and become moldy and discolored (brown stained tips of staples). This discoloration, if bad, cannot be eradicated. In all cases of water damage, speed in treatment is essential. All burned or charred wools should be warm water washed and dried only, not scoured with hot water and harsh soaps. In respect of changes in the fiber caused by self-heating or by various fermentative agents latent at the time of examination of the consignment, besides particular attention as to the colors and resistance of the fiber, it will be necessary to find, by chemical research, the components responsible for the degeneration of the keratin, and a careful examination of the fiber under a microscope will reveal the condition of the scales and of the walls of the cortical cells and connecting texture. Some variation of weight arises in shipments of wool due to a natural drying out during transit. Wool (sheep's wool), a protein fiber, is the highest value textile fiber. The value of raw wool, or more precisely greasy wool, is assessed on the basis of its content of 5 main constituents, e.g. Merino wool contains: - 49% fibers - 19% wool grease (lanolin) - 6% suint - 16% dirt (sand, dust, excrement, plant particles) - 10% water The main factor in determining the value of a fleece is its pure wool content. Depending on cleanness, a distinction is drawn between the following types: - greasy wool, unscoured wool - scoured wool - snow white wool Grease or unwashed wool or wool in the suint is the unscoured raw wool with a fiber content of only around 50%, in contrast to scoured wool. Wool fibers consist of a cellular structure of keratin covered with scales. A schematic cross-section through a wool fiber reveals the following structure: The scale layer consisting of keratinized protein cells protects the inside of the fiber and is one of the factors responsible for wool's felting property and thus for its good warmth retention properties. The fine, resilient intermediate membrane (basal membrane) allows both dyes and moisture to penetrate into the wool fiber. The cortical cell layer (cortex) forms the body of the fiber. It influences important characteristics such as strength, stretch, elasticity and crimp. The medulla is responsible for feeding the wool fiber and does not contribute in any way to its strength. Wool is classified by: - breed and wool quality - recovery method - body part and fineness - cleanness - hair type - gender and age - origin - production purpose See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
WOOL GREASY WOOL - Bales of greasy wool after a voyage show greasy marks, but this is not a sign of damage. These marks are more evident in the interior of the bale and are fainter on the cover. The hair of the wool is often covered by a wet, yellowish substance and some hair is often colorless and bristly. Both types of damage are due to damage at origin, the first to sheep mange and the second to hair being already dead when clipped. Usual packing is gunny-covered bales; covering prone to staining by greasy wool itself, and this may easily be mistaken for water damage. Water damaged greasy wool sometimes generates heat and weakens the tensile strength of fibers, and immediate treatment such as opening and re-processing is recommended. Greasy wool damaged by seawater requires washing in order to extract salt, but even sound greasy wool requires washing prior to processing or manufacture at the mill. If sheep happen to be shorn in wet or damp conditions and wool packed for shipment direct, there is a possibility of spontaneous combustion. Instances have occurred where greasy wool has suffered damage from diesel oil. It was shown that in the case of the heavily damaged wool, diesel oil having penetrated the fiber cells, the harsh treatment of washing in volatile solvents discolored the wool and made the fibers tender. While the wool may be suitable for some purposes it would not in such a condition be suitable for others. It can, however, be reclassified as discolored scoured fleece wool. The lesser damaged wool was treated in a similar manner but with the addition of extra soap and alkali solutions, and was not found to have suffered to the same extent, being reclassified as scoured (average) fleece wool. It will be seen that a proper segregation of the heavily damaged from the lesser damaged wool may result in the loss being minimized. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
WOOL SCOURED WOOL - Has not the same susceptibility to damage as greasy wool, it being thoroughly dry before being packed.
WOOL WRAPPING PAPER (Transparent) (See Transparent Wrapping Paper).
WOOL WOOL SHODDY - Contains 5% to 10% natural oil, according to grade and variety. Salt water damaged wool shoddy requires immediate washing to prevent further deterioration, but 10% to 15% may be lost in this operation. Shoddy damaged by fresh water does not usually require washing, but should be immediately aired and dried, etc.
WOOL SLIPED WOOLS - This class of wool is not scoured in process, merely being washed and machine dried before packing. It still contains a large percentage of grease.
WOOL ALPACA - Normal moisture content is from 8% to 12%, which usually increases in transit. When baled wet, a rot may set in the center of the bale, discoloring and damaging the fiber, which may lose in strength. Seawater damaged bales should be opened up to be dried or scoured as soon as possible.
WOOL PERUVIAN SHEEP'S WOOL - May contain 16% moisture without being considered wet. It usually gains weight during transit but may lose weight depending on the moisture content at the time of baling.
WOOL WOOLLEN FABRICS - In all cases of damage by seawater immediate cleaning is essential. If proper facilities are not available the material should be thoroughly washed in fresh cold water. See also TEXTILES.
WOOL WOOLLEN GOODS (Blankets) - Bales are sometimes lined with an inferior waterproof paper in which bitumen of a very low melting point has been used between the two layers of paper. From 140 degrees to 150 degrees F, the bitumen is freed and this combined with pressure causes the soiling of the goods. See also FABRICS.
WOOL WOOLLEN KNITTING YARN - All wool and worsted commodities, from the raw material to the finished product, contain a certain percentage of moisture, and therefore a normal loss by evaporation may be quite high. This needs to be taken into account, and surveyor should calculate what is commonly known as "regain" to as certain the weight that the bales would have shown had they still had a normal moisture content.
WOOL WOOL PRESSCLOTH - White wool presscloth which has been damaged by salt water will be found to be stained, mildewed, rotten, crumbly and emitting a bad odor. Damaged presscloth of this nature should, if possible, be used without delay.
YARNS Yarns are filamentous textile products produced by mechanical spinning processes. A distinction is drawn between: 1. by material: - spinnable vegetable fibers (cotton, flax, hemp, jute etc.) - animal fibers (wool, silk) - manmade fibers (viscose, nylon etc.) 2. by spinning method: - carded yarn - worsted yarn - combed yarn - teased yarn - bourette yarn 3. by fineness
YEAST A dry and crumbly condition may be evidence of age, whereas freezing creates a soft and watery condition. Fresh yeast, wrapped in watertight paper and packed in skeleton cases, travels in refrigerated compartments and has to be stored in ice boxes as soon as discharged. The commodity can suffer considerable damage while traveling if not kept below a maximum temperature. When damaged it appears as a liquid paste with traces of moldiness.
YELLOW METAL SHEETS Scratches, gougings, tears, etc., ruin the sheet for utensil purposes to the extent of the damaged area; the undamaged part of the sheet can be used for cutting circles of suitable size from which utensils are also made. Seawater and fresh water produce stains; seawater will corrode to depths which may ruin the sheet. So long as the stain is superficial, the sheet can be used, but, if rough and pitted, must be rejected.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS Zinc and its products do not depreciate in value when affected by immersion in water - salt or fresh; any superficial staining or deposit can easily be removed by cleaning and polishing if necessary. See also IMDG Code & US CFR.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS ZINC (Slab) - Zinc in massive form is liable to superficial corrosion by immersion in or exposure to salt or fresh water. While the corrosion product can be fairly easily removed by brushing, its presence leads to an increased loss in subsequent melting operations and may therefore represent some loss in value.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS ZINC ASH - Liable to heat through moisture.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS ZINC CONCENTRATES - When shipped in bulk may be subject to a natural loss in weight. The presence of chlorides reduces the value of the concentrates and contact with seawater results in the deterioration of value due to the increase in chlorine content. The extent of the chlorine content determines the degree of damage. At the time of shipment the concentrates may contain a small percentage of moisture, and if it is proposed to stow other cargo on top, it is recommended that the ore be double dunnaged and double "sisal" paper be used to prevent the rising of moisture damaging cargo stowed on top.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS ZINC PHOSPHIDE - Insoluble in water and in the absence of air will decompose only at a very high temperature. It is unlikely, therefore, that this commodity will suffer damage by heat unless this is higher than the melting point of zinc.
ZINC AND ZINC PRODUCTS ZINC SHEETS - Access of water between closely stacked sheets by condensation or otherwise may damage them through the formation of a white corrosion product known as "white rust." This will reduce coating thickness and spoil the appearance of both galvanized and zinc sheets. These effects are largely due to access of moisture in a limited supply of air and should be avoided by spacing the sheets, or storing or stowing in a dry, well ventilated place. Any sheets which have become wet during transit should be wiped dry before storage. It is sometimes found that zinc sheets in sealed zinc wrappers en closed in wooden barrels have arrived with the drums and outside wrappers clean and dry, with no signs of water having entered in side the barrels, whereas the sheets themselves show a white deposit. This can result from the packing of the sheets in a warm and moist atmosphere, subsequent cooling of the sheets causing condensation, thereby giving rise to corrosion.
ZIRCON SAND Subject to loss in weight due to seepage from the containers. Also known as zirconium silicate, zircon, or ceramic opacifier.